An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>

Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
hysteresis loop
  گردال ِ پسماند   
gerdâl-e pasmând

Fr.: cycle d'hystérésis   

A closed curve showing the change in magnetic induction of a ferromagnetic body to which an external field is applied as the intensity of this field is varied from +Hs to -Hs and back again, where Hs is the magnetic field intensity corresponding to saturation.

hysteresis; → loop.

hysteresis loss
  دست‌رفت ِ پسماندی   
dastraft-e pasmândi

Fr.: perte par hystérésis   

Dissipation of energy which occurs, due to magnetic hysteresis, when the magnetic material is subject to changes of magnetization.

hysteresis; → loss.

Iapetus
  یاپتوس   
Yâpetus

Fr.: Japet   

The seventeenth of Saturn's known satellites and the third largest. It is 1436 km across and revolves around Saturn at a mean distance of 3.5 million km with a period of 79 days. The most unique and perhaps most remarkable feature on Iapetus is a topographic ridge 13 km higher than the surrounding terrain, as discovered in the images obtained with Cassini spacecraft. The ridge extends at least 1300 km almost exactly parallel with Iapetus's equator.

Iapetus was one of the Titan gods, sons of Ouranos (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). Discovered 25 October 1671 by Jean-Dominique Cassini.

IC 10
     
IC 10

Fr.: IC 10   

A small → dwarf irregular galaxy belonging to the → Local Group, which is located in the constellation → Cassiopeia. IC 10 is about 2.3 million light-years distant and about 5,000 light-years across. With an absolute B magnitude of -16.5, IC 10 has an integrated luminosity that is comparable to that of the → Small Magellanic Cloud, although it is considerably smaller. Its → metallicity is roughly a factor of 2 higher than that of the SMC and in the same proportion smaller than → LMC's. Compared to other Local Group galaxies, IC 10 has a large population of newly formed stars that are massive and intrinsically very bright, especially → Wolf-Rayet stars. Its W-R star density is larger than those of the LMC and SMC. Moreover, the relative number of known → WC to → WN type Wolf-Rayet stars is unusually high, which is unexpected for IC 10's metallicity. IC 10 is also known to be unusual in having → H I gas that extends about 7 times the optical dimensions of the galaxy. IC 10 is the nearest example of a → starburst galaxy. IC 10 was discovered by the American astronomer Lewis A. Swift (1820-1913) in 1887.

Number 10 in the → Index Catalogue.

IC 1613
     
IC 1613

Fr.: IC 1613   

A → dwarf irregular galaxy (also called Caldwell 51) located in the constellation → Cetus. IC 1613 is a member of the → Local Group of galaxies and has a → morphological classification of IBm (Irregular Barred, → Magellanic type galaxy). IC 1613 has a very → low surface brightness and a very low → dust content. It lies just over 2.38 ± 0.07 million → light-years away from us. IC 1613's distance is known to a remarkably high precision, partly due to the unusually low levels of dust lying both within the galaxy and along the line of sight from the → Milky Way. Moreover, the galaxy hosts a number of → Cepheid variables and → RR Lyrae variables which can be used to precisely determine distances. It was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906.

IC, short for → Index Catalogue.

IC 434
     
IC 434

Fr.: IC 434   

A bright → emission nebula running north to south near → Alnitak, the eastern star of → Orion's Belt. It is the bright background nebula against which the famous dark region called the → Horsehead Nebula stands out.

IC, → Index Catalogue.

ice
  یخ   
yax (#)

Fr.: glace   

1) The solid form of water; it is found in the atmosphere as snow crystals, hail, ice pellets, etc., and on the Earth's surface in forms such as frost, rime, glaze, glacier ice, etc.
2) The solid, frozen form of gases in cold astronomical objects.

Ice, from O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; cf. O.N. iss, O.Fris. is, Du. ijs, Ger. Eis. Cognate with Pers. yax, as below.

Yax, from Av. aexa- "ice, frost," isav-, isu- "icy, chilly;" cf. Sarikoli (Pamir dialect) īš "cold;" P.Gmc. *isa-, as above.

ice accretion
  فربال ِ یخ   
farbâl-e yax

Fr.: accrétion de glace   

Meteo.: The process by which a layer of ice builds up on solid objects that are exposed to freezing precipitation or to supercooled fog or cloud droplets.

ice; → accretion.

ice age
  عصر ِ یخ   
asr-e yax (#)

Fr.: âge de glace   

A major interval of geologic time during which extensive ice sheets (continental → glaciers) formed over many parts of the world. There have been at least five significant ice ages in Earth's history, with approximately a dozen epochs of glacial expansion occurring in the past 1 million years. The last one ran from about 75,000 to 15,000 years ago.

ice; → age.

ice crystal
  بلور یخ   
bolur-e yax

Fr.: cristal de glace   

A tiny particle of ice within which → water molecules are all lined up in a precise → crystalline structure. Ice crystals come in various shapes including needles, → dendrites, hexagonal columns, and → platelet. If the temperature decreases the water molecules can crystallize, arranging themselves around the suspended impurities such as dust particles. See also → snow crystal.

ice; → crystal.

ice giant
  غولپیکر ِ یخی   
qulpeykar-e yaxi

Fr.: géante de glace   

A member of the lesser mass group of → gas giants. Ice giants contain a higher quantity of materials that form ices at low temperatures, such as → water, → methane, and → ammonia. There are two ice giants in the Solar System, → Uranus and → Neptune.

ice; → giant.

ice house
  یخچال   
yaxcâl (#)

Fr.: glacière   

A building for storing ice throughout the year, mainly used prior to the invention of the refrigerator.

ice; → house.

Yaxcâl, literally "a pit of ice," but "any place or vessel in which ice is kept," from yax, → ice, + câl "pit, → hole."

ice point
  نقطه‌ی ِ یخ   
noqte-ye yax (#)

Fr.: point de congélation   

The temperature at which a mixture of air-saturated pure water and pure ice may exist in equilibrium at a pressure of one standard atmosphere.

ice; → point.

iceberg
  یخ‌بِرگ، کوه ِ یخ   
yaxberg, kuh-e yax (#)

Fr.: iceberg   

A large mass of floating or stranded ice that has broken away from a glacier; usually more than 5 m above sea level.

Iceberg, half Anglicization, half adoption of Du. ijsberg "ice mountain," from ijs, → ice, + berg "mountain" (cf. Ger. Eisberg, Sw. isberg), from P.Gmc. *bergaz; cf. M.H.G. berc, O.H.G. berg "mountain;" cognate with Pers. boland, borz, berg, as below; PIE base *bheregh- "high, elevated."

Yaxberg, from yax, → ice, + berg "mountain, hill," in Laki dialect, related to Pers. boland "high," variants bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."

icon
  زدیش   
zodiš

Fr.: icone   

1) An image; a representation.
2) A representation or picture of a sacred or sanctified Christian personage, traditionally used and venerated in the Eastern Church.
3) A person or thing regarded as a symbol of a belief, nation, community, or cultural movement.
4) Computers: A pictorial representation of a facility available on a computer system, that enables the facility to be activated by means of a screen cursor rather than by a textual instruction (TheFreeDictionary.com).

From Gk. eikon "likeness, image, portrait; a semblance;" in philosophy, "an image in the mind," related to eikenai "be like, look like," from PIE *weik- "to be like."

Zodiš, variant of Mid.Pers. uzdês "icon; image; idol," from uz-, → ex-, + dês, Av. daēs- "to show;" cognate with Gk. deiknumai "to show;" L. dicere "to utter, say, proclaim;" N.H.G. zeigen "to say;" O.E. têon "to annoince;" PIE *deik- "to show, point out; announce."

icy
  یخی، یخزده   
yaxi, yaxzade

Fr.: glacé, glacial   

Made of, covered with, or containing → ice.

ice + an English suffix of adjectives denoting "characterized by or inclined to."

idea
  مینه   
miné

Fr.: idée   

A thought, conception, or notion existing in the mind as a result of mental understanding, awareness, or activity. See also → thought, → concept.

Idea, from L. idea "idea," pre-Platonic Gk. idea "form, semblance, nature, fashion," in Plato "a timeless, universal archetype of existents; ideal prototype," literally "look, form," from idein "to see," from PIE *wid-es-ya-, suffixed form of base *weid- "to know, to see;" cf. Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know."

Miné "idea," related to Pers. man "disposition, temperament, greatness of soul," minu "heaven, paradise," also equivalent to Ger. Geist in recent philosophical translations, došman "enemy," pašimân "penitent, regretful," pežmân "sad, mournful," šâdmân "joyful, cheerful, pleased," ârmân "desire; → ideal;" dialectal (Šuštar) mana "(he) thinks, imagines," (Tarq-e Natanz) môna "to imagine, suppose;" Mid.Pers. mênidan "to think, consider," mên "thought, idea," mênišn "thought, thinking, mind, disposition," mênitâr "thinker," mênôg "spiritual, immaterial, heavenly," from Av. man- "to think," mainyeite "he thinks," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," traditionally translated as "spirit," Angra Mainyu "hostile mentality" (Mod.Pers. Ahriman); O.Pers. maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."

ideal
  ۱) آرمان، مینه‌وار؛ ۲) آرمانی، مینه‌ای، مینه‌وار   
1) (n.) ârmân (#), minevâr; 2) (adj.) ârmâni (#), mineyi, minevâr

Fr.: idéal   

1) (n.) A standard of perfection, beauty, or excellence.
Math.: A subset of a ring that is closed under addition and multiplication by any element of the ring.
2) (adj.) Existing only in the imagination; not real or actual.
Conforming exactly to an ideal, law, or standard; perfect. → ideal gas.

M.E. ydeall, from L.L. idealis "existing in idea," from L. → idea.

Ârmân "ideal" in Mod.Pers., traditionally "desire; hope; grief," variants armân, urmân, prefixed from mân, "thought, mind," → idea. The first element may be related to Av. armaē- "in peace, still; quietly;" PIE base *er[ə]- "to be still" (cf. Skt. īrmā (adv.) "quiet, still, being in the same place;" Gk. erôé "calm, peace;" O.H.G. rouwa "rest"), as in Av. armaē.šad- "sitting quietly," armaē.štā- "standing still, stagnant." Therefore, Pers. ârmân may be related to Av. *armaē.manah- (PIE *ermen-) "thought in peace, quiet mind."
Mineyi, minevâr, adj. from miné, → idea.

ideal fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ آرمانی، ~ مینه‌وار   
šâre-ye ârmâni, ~ minevâr

Fr.: fluide idéal   

An fluid which has no internal friction or → viscosity, and no → resistivity as well if the fluid is a plasma.

ideal; → fluid.

ideal gas
  گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ِ مینه‌وار   
gâz-e ârmâni, ~-e minevâr

Fr.: gaz idéal   

Theoretical gas assumed to consist of perfectly elastic molecules of negligible volume and mutual attraction force. Also called → perfect gas.

ideal; → gas.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>