An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
irregular galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان   
kahkašân-e bisâmân

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière   

A galaxy with no spiral structure and no symmetric shape. Irregular galaxies are usually filamentary or very clumpy in shape and tend to smaller than others. Two types of irregular galaxies are defined, → Irr I galaxy and → Irr II galaxy.

irregular; → galaxy.

irregular satellite
  بنده‌وار ِ بی‌سامان، ماه ِ ~   
bandevâr-e bisâmân, mâh-e ~

Fr.: satellite irrégulier   

A satellite whose orbit around its planet is eccentric, inclined with respect to the equatorial plane, and relatively far from the planet. Strong solar perturbations cause the orbit to precess. → regular satellite.

irregular; → satellite.

irregular variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ بی‌سامان   
vartande-ye bisâmân

Fr.: variable irrégulière   

A type of variable star in which variations in brightness show no regular periodicity. There are two main types, irregular eruptive variables and irregular pulsating variables.

irregular; → variable.

irreversible
  واگشت‌ناپذیر   
vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: irréversible   

Not capable of returning to an original condition. → irreversible process.

Irreversible, from ir- "not," variant of → in- + → reversible.

irreversible process
  فراروند ِ واگشت‌ناپذیر   
farâravand-e vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: processus irréversible   

A physical process in which the combined → entropy of the → system and the → environment increases. During an irreversible process the system is not in equilibrium at all instances of time. Most of the processes in nature are irreversible. → reversible process.

irreversible; → process.

isentropic
  ایزودرگاشت   
izodargâšt

Fr.: isentrope   

Having a constant entropy.

iso- + → entropy + → -ic.

isentropic flow
  تچان ِ ایزودرگاشت   
tacân-e izodargâšt

Fr.: écoulement isentrope   

A → reversible flow in which the value of → entropy remains → constant; i.e. no energy is added to the flow, and no energy losses occur due to friction or dissipative effects.

isentropic; → flow.

isentropic process
  فراروند ِ ایزودرگاشت   
farâravand-e izodargâšt

Fr.: process isentrope   

A → thermodynamic process for which there is no → heat transfer with the surroundings, and no change in → entropy.

isentropic; → process.

Islamic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ اسلامی   
axtaršenâsi-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: astronomie islamique   

The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. The term Islamic should refer to a civilization rather than a religion, because much of the astronomy was secular. In fact more than 90% of "Islamic" astronomy deals with the Greek astronomy → Ptolemaic system, which has obviously nothing to do with religion. Moreover, many non-Muslims within that civilization contributed to this science and must be acknowledged. Apart from these considerations, the term "Islamic astronomy" creates a conceptual disparity. In comparison, the works of European astronomers, such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others are not placed under "Christian astronomy," and they are indeed not called "Christian scientists." See also → Arabic astronomy, → Islamic calendar.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → astronomy.

Islamic calendar
  گاهشمار ِ اسلامی   
gâhšomâr-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: calendrier islamique   

A religious and strictly → lunar calendar which follows the visibility of the lunar crescent after → conjunction and ignores the seasons (see also → synodic month). The year, which consists of 12 months of 29 or 30 days, is approximately 354 days long (→ lunar year of 354.3672 days). Because the calendar follows a purely lunar cycle, each month begins 10 or 11 days earlier each year in relation to the 365-day → solar year. As a result, the cycle of 12 lunar months regresses through the seasons over a period of 33 years. For religious purposes, Muslims begin the months with the first visibility of the lunar crescent. The month length may be 30 or 29 days during four or three successive months respectively. However, astronomers consider a calendar with months of alternately 30 and 29 days. The 33-year period contains 11 → leap years of 355 days. The origin of the Islamic era is considered to be the migration (Hijra) of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina on 16 July, A.D. 622. It was Caliph Umar (died 644) who, 17 years after the actual event, poised the migration as the beginning of the Muslim era.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → calendar.

island
  آداک، آبخوست، جزیره، تمب   
âdâk (#), âbxost (#), jaziré (#), tomb (#)

Fr.: île   

A tract of land completely surrounded by water, and not large enough to be called a → continent (Dictionary.com).

M.E. iland, from O.E. igland "island," from ieg "island;" PIE *akwa- "water," cf. Pers. âb, → water, + → land.

Âdâk, âdak, adak "island" (Dehxodâ), probably from Proto-Ir. *āpdaka- "placed in water," from *âp-, → water, cf. Pers. âb, + *da- "to place, put," cf. Pers. dâdan "to give," → thesis, + suffix *-ka.
Âbxost, ultimately from āpxvasta-, literally "stricken/pounded by water," from *āp-, → water, + *xvasta-, from Proto-Ir. *huah- "to strike, to thresh;" cf. Av. (paiti)xvanh- "to thresh;" Mid.Pers. xwastan "to tread, trample, thresh;" Mod.Pers. xvast "trampled, beaten," âbxun "island," šabixun "night attack;" Kurd. xistin, xin-, xa- "to strike, to beat;" Hamedâni xostan/xus-, Esfahâni xosan "to throw."
Jaziré loan from Ar. jazirah.
Tomb "island" in Iranian Hormozgâni dialects.

island universe
  گیتی-آداک، گیتی-جزیره   
giti-âdâk, giti-jaziré

Fr.: univers-île   

The hypothesis first put forward by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) according to which the objects termed "spiral nebulae" were stellar systems comparable to our own → Milky Way galaxy. At the end of the 18th century, William Herschel (1738-1822) using his giant reflectors discovered thousands of such nebulae. However, in spite of advances in observations it was never possible to prove Kant's idea until the second decade of the twentieth century. The observations using the Mount Wilson 2.50m (100 inch) telescope allowed Edwin Hubble in 1924 to firmly establish that the "spiral nebulae" were unquestionably extragalactic.

The term "island Universe" was first introduced by the German Alexander von Humboldt in 1850; → island; → Universe.

iso-
  ایزو-، هم-   
izo- (#), ham- (#)

Fr.: iso-   

Prefix denoting "equal; homogeneous; uniform." Also is- sometimes before a vowel.

From L.L., from Gk. isos "equal."

Izo-, loan from Gk. isos, as above. The Pers. ham-com- is overused; therefore this dictionary adopts izo-.

isobar
  ایزوبار، ایزوفشار   
izobâr (#), izofešâr

Fr.: isobare   

1) Meteo.: A line connecting points having equal pressure.
2) Any of a group of nuclides which, although having different atomic numbers, have identical mass numbers; e.g. the tin isotope 11550Sn and the indium isotope 11549In.

From Gk. isobares "of equal weight," from → iso- + bar, from baros "weight," cognate with Pers. bâr "charge, weight" (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy;" *bher- "to carry, give birth").

isobaric process
  فراروند ِ ایزوفشار   
farâravand-e izofešâr

Fr.: processus isobare   

A process taking place at constant pressure. → polytropic process.

Isobaric, adj. of → isobar; → process.

isobaric spin
  ایزو‌اسپین   
isospin (#)

Fr.: spin isobarique   

Same as → isospin.

Isobaric, adj. of → isobar; → spin.

isochoric process
  فراروند ِ ایزوگنج   
farâravand-e izogonj

Fr.: processus isochore   

A process in which the volume remains unchanged.

From → iso- + chor-, from Gk. chora "place, land" + → ic.

Farâravand, → process; izogonj, from izoiso- + gonj "volume," gonjdan "to be contained; to hold exactly; to be filled;" Mid.Pers. winj- "to be contained;" Proto-Iranian *uiac-/*uic-; cf. Skt. vyac- "to contain, encompass," vyás- "extent, content, extension;" L. uincire "to bind."

isochrone
  ایزوزمان   
izozamân

Fr.: isochrone   

A curve on a → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram connecting all stars having the same age.

Isochrone, back formation from isochronal, from Gk. → iso- + khronos "time."

Izozamân, from → iso- + zamântime.

isogonal
  ایزوکنج   
izokonj

Fr.: isogonal   

Having similar angles.

iso- + -gonal, → diagonal

isogonal trajectory
  ترایشانه‌ی ِ ایزوکنج   
tarâyešâne-ye izokonj

Fr.: trajectoire isogonale   

Math.: A curve which intersects every member of a given one-parameter family of curves at one and the same angle.

isogonal; → trajectory.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>