An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>

Number of Results: 13003 Search : far
ironic
  گواژیک   
govâžik

Fr.: ironique   

1) Using words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning; containing or exemplifying irony: an ironic novel; an ironic remark.
2) Of, pertaining to, or tending to use irony or mockery; ironical (Dictionary.com).

irony; → -ic.

irony
  گواژه   
govâžé (#)

Fr.: 1) ironie; 2) ironiser   

1) The humorous or mildly sarcastic use of words to imply the opposite of what they normally mean. → ironic.
2) An instance of this, used to draw attention to some incongruity or irrationality (Dictionary.com).

From L. ironia, from Gk. eironeia "dissimulation, assumed ignorance," from eiron "dissembler," perhaps related to eirein "to speak."

Govâžé, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-vac-, from *ui- prefix denoting "apart, away, out," cf. Av. vi-, O.Pers. viy-, Skt. vi- (Mod.Pers., e.g., gozidan, → select, gozaštan "to cross," → passage) + *uac- "to say, speak," → word; also govâžidan "to make irony of, to say ironically."

Irr I galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ گونه‌ی ِ I   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type I   

An → irregular galaxy that shows a hint of a spiral arm or bar, and can be placed at the far end of spirals in the → Hubble sequence.

irregular; → galaxy.

Irr II galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ گونه‌ی ِ II   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type II   

An amorphous, → irregular galaxy that does not appear to show any structure that can place it into the → Hubble sequence.

irregular; → galaxy.

irradiance
  تابشداری   
tâbešdâri

Fr.: éclairement énergétique   

The → energy at all → wavelengths that is incident on unit area of surface in unit time. It is measured in Watts per square meter.

Irradiance, from ir- variant of → in- (by assimilation) before r + radi(ant), → radiation, + -ance a suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives in -ant or from verbs.

Tâbešdâri, from tâbeš, → radiation, + dâri, verbal noun from dâštan "to have, hold," → property.

irradiate
  تابش دادن   
tâbeš dâdan

Fr.: irradier   

To expose something to → radiation.

irradiance.

Tâbeš, → radiation, dâdan "to give," → irradiation.

irradiation
  ۱) تابش‌دهی، تابش‌گیری؛ ۲) نورگسترد   
1) tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri; 2) nurgostard

Fr.: irradiation   

1) Exposure to any kind of radiation or atomic particles.
2) An optical effect that makes a bright object appear larger than it really is when viewed against a darker background.

Irradiation, from ir- variant of → in- (by assimilation) before r + → radiation.

1) Tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri;, from tâbešradiation + giri verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize"); dahi verbal noun of dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").
2) Nurgostard, from nur, → light, + gostard past stem of gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse" (Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

irrational number
  عدد ِ ناوابری   
adad-e nâvâbari

Fr.: nombre irrationnel   

A → real number which cannot be exactly expressed as a ratio a/b of two integers. Irrational numbers have decimal expansions that neither terminate nor become periodic. Every → transcendental number is irrational. The most famous irrational number is √ 2.

From ir- a prefix meaning "not," a variant of → in-, + → rational; → number.

irregular
  ۱) بی‌سامان؛ ۲) نارزن‌مند   
1) bisâmân (#); 2) nârazan-mand

Fr.: irrégulier   

1) Lacking symmetry, even shape, formal arrangement, etc. → irregular galaxy; → irregular variable.
2) Not according to rule, or to the accepted principle, method, course, order, etc.

From O.Fr. irregulier, from M.L. irregularis, from → in- "not" + L. regularis from regula "rule," from PIE *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule" (cf. Pers. râst "right, straight;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right).

Bisâmân, from bi- "not, without" + sâmân "order, arrangement, disposition; boundary, limit," Lârestâni sâmon "sign or mark separating one field from another," Gilaki, Tabari šalmân "a straight peace of wood or beam, post;" Mid.Pers. sâmânak, sahmân "limit;" loaned into Arm. sahmân; cf. Skt. sīmān-, sīmā- "boundary, border, limit."

irregular galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان   
kahkašân-e bisâmân

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière   

A galaxy with no spiral structure and no symmetric shape. Irregular galaxies are usually filamentary or very clumpy in shape and tend to smaller than others. Two types of irregular galaxies are defined, → Irr I galaxy and → Irr II galaxy.

irregular; → galaxy.

irregular satellite
  بنده‌وار ِ بی‌سامان، ماه ِ ~   
bandevâr-e bisâmân, mâh-e ~

Fr.: satellite irrégulier   

A satellite whose orbit around its planet is eccentric, inclined with respect to the equatorial plane, and relatively far from the planet. Strong solar perturbations cause the orbit to precess. → regular satellite.

irregular; → satellite.

irregular variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ بی‌سامان   
vartande-ye bisâmân

Fr.: variable irrégulière   

A type of variable star in which variations in brightness show no regular periodicity. There are two main types, irregular eruptive variables and irregular pulsating variables.

irregular; → variable.

irreversible
  واگشت‌ناپذیر   
vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: irréversible   

Not capable of returning to an original condition. → irreversible process.

Irreversible, from ir- "not," variant of → in- + → reversible.

irreversible process
  فراروند ِ واگشت‌ناپذیر   
farâravand-e vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: processus irréversible   

A physical process in which the combined → entropy of the → system and the → environment increases. During an irreversible process the system is not in equilibrium at all instances of time. Most of the processes in nature are irreversible. → reversible process.

irreversible; → process.

isentropic
  ایزودرگاشت   
izodargâšt

Fr.: isentrope   

Having a constant entropy.

iso- + → entropy + → -ic.

isentropic flow
  تچان ِ ایزودرگاشت   
tacân-e izodargâšt

Fr.: écoulement isentrope   

A → reversible flow in which the value of → entropy remains → constant; i.e. no energy is added to the flow, and no energy losses occur due to friction or dissipative effects.

isentropic; → flow.

isentropic process
  فراروند ِ ایزودرگاشت   
farâravand-e izodargâšt

Fr.: process isentrope   

A → thermodynamic process for which there is no → heat transfer with the surroundings, and no change in → entropy.

isentropic; → process.

Islamic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ اسلامی   
axtaršenâsi-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: astronomie islamique   

The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. The term Islamic should refer to a civilization rather than a religion, because much of the astronomy was secular. In fact more than 90% of "Islamic" astronomy deals with the Greek astronomy → Ptolemaic system, which has obviously nothing to do with religion. Moreover, many non-Muslims within that civilization contributed to this science and must be acknowledged. Apart from these considerations, the term "Islamic astronomy" creates a conceptual disparity. In comparison, the works of European astronomers, such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others are not placed under "Christian astronomy," and they are indeed not called "Christian scientists." See also → Arabic astronomy, → Islamic calendar.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → astronomy.

Islamic calendar
  گاهشمار ِ اسلامی   
gâhšomâr-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: calendrier islamique   

A religious and strictly → lunar calendar which follows the visibility of the lunar crescent after → conjunction and ignores the seasons (see also → synodic month). The year, which consists of 12 months of 29 or 30 days, is approximately 354 days long (→ lunar year of 354.3672 days). Because the calendar follows a purely lunar cycle, each month begins 10 or 11 days earlier each year in relation to the 365-day → solar year. As a result, the cycle of 12 lunar months regresses through the seasons over a period of 33 years. For religious purposes, Muslims begin the months with the first visibility of the lunar crescent. The month length may be 30 or 29 days during four or three successive months respectively. However, astronomers consider a calendar with months of alternately 30 and 29 days. The 33-year period contains 11 → leap years of 355 days. The origin of the Islamic era is considered to be the migration (Hijra) of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina on 16 July, A.D. 622. It was Caliph Umar (died 644) who, 17 years after the actual event, poised the migration as the beginning of the Muslim era.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → calendar.

island
  آداک، آبخوست، جزیره، تمب   
âdâk (#), âbxost (#), jaziré (#), tomb (#)

Fr.: île   

A tract of land completely surrounded by water, and not large enough to be called a → continent (Dictionary.com).

M.E. iland, from O.E. igland "island," from ieg "island;" PIE *akwa- "water," cf. Pers. âb, → water, + → land.

Âdâk, âdak, adak "island" (Dehxodâ), probably from Proto-Ir. *āpdaka- "placed in water," from *âp-, → water, cf. Pers. âb, + *da- "to place, put," cf. Pers. dâdan "to give," → thesis, + suffix *-ka.
Âbxost, ultimately from āpxvasta-, literally "stricken/pounded by water," from *āp-, → water, + *xvasta-, from Proto-Ir. *huah- "to strike, to thresh;" cf. Av. (paiti)xvanh- "to thresh;" Mid.Pers. xwastan "to tread, trample, thresh;" Mod.Pers. xvast "trampled, beaten," âbxun "island," šabixun "night attack;" Kurd. xistin, xin-, xa- "to strike, to beat;" Hamedâni xostan/xus-, Esfahâni xosan "to throw."
Jaziré loan from Ar. jazirah.
Tomb "island" in Iranian Hormozgâni dialects.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>