An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
lava
  گدازه   
godâzé (#)

Fr.: lave   

Molten → magma released from a volcanic vent or fissure.

Lava, from It. lava "torrent, stream," from L. lavare "to wash;" PIE base *lou- "to wash;" cf. Persian Lori, Kurdi, Malâyeri laf "flood," variants Tabari , [Mo'in, Dehxodâ] lur, lây "flood;" Gk. louein "to wash."

Godâzé noun from godâxtan "to melt," from Mid.Pers. vitâxtan, vitâcitan "to melt," from Av. vi-taxti- "flowing away, melting," from vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + tak- "to run, to flow," taciāp- "flowing water," tacinti (3pl.pers.act.) "to flow," tacar- "course," tacan "current, streaming;" Mod.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to run; to hasten; to assault," tâzi "swift (greyhound)," tak "running, rush;" Mid.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to flow, to cause to walk," tc- "to flow, to walk," tag "running, attack," tâzig "swift, fast;" Khotanese ttajs- "to flow, to walk;" cf. Skt. tak- "to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow."

law
  قانون، ارته   
qânun (#), arté (#)

Fr.: loi   

1) A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority.
2) A code of principles based on morality, conscience, or nature.
3) Physics: A statement of a scientific fact or phenomenon that is invariable under given conditions; e.g. → Newton's law of gravitation, → second law of thermodynamics.
4) Math.: A general principle deduced from particular facts expressed by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present.

M.E., O.E. lagu, from O.N. *lagu, variant of lag "that which is laid down;" cf. Ger. liegen, E. lay, lie; PIE *legh- "To lie, lay;" compare with Hittite laggari "falls, lies," Gk. lekhesthai "to lie down," L. lectus "bed," O.Ir. lige "bed, tomb," Tokharian lake, leke "bed."

Qânun, from Ar., ultimately from Gk. kanon "rule."
Arté, from O.Pers. arta- "law, justice;" Av. arəta-, ərəta- "law, order," variant aša- "truth, cosmic order," aipi-ərəta- "firmly assigned," from root ar- "to fix;" cf. Skt. rtá- "truth, world order; oath;" Ossetci ard "oath;" Gk. arthon "limb, articulation," artus "a joint;" L. artus "a joint;" PIE base *ar- "to join, to fit together."

law of cosines
  قانون ِ کوسینوس‌ها   
qânun-e kosinushâ

Fr.: loi des cosinus   

An expression that for any triangle relates the length of a side to the cosine of the opposite angle and the lengths of the two other sides. If a, b, and c are the sides and A, B, and C are the corresponding opposites angles: a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos A; b2 = c2 + a2 - 2ca cos B; c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C.

law; → cosine.

law of excluded middle
  قانون ِ میانی سکلانده   
qânun-e miyâni soklândé

Fr.: principe du milieu exclu   

Same as → principle of excluded middle.

law; → exclude; → middle.

law of identity
  قانون ِ ایدانی   
qânun-e idâni

Fr.: principe d'identité   

Same as → principle of identity.

law; → identity.

law of inertia
  قانون ِ لختی   
qânun-e laxti (#)

Fr.: loi d'inertie   

Same as → Newton's first law. The → reference frames to which the law applies are called → inertial frames.

law; → inertia.

law of non-contradiction
  قانون ِ ناپادگویی   
qânun-e nâpâdguyi

Fr.: principe de non-contradiction   

Same as → principle of non-contradiction.

law; → non-; → contradiction.

law of reflection
  قانون ِ بازتاب   
qânun-e bâztâb (#)

Fr.: loi de réflexion   

One of the two laws governing reflection of light from a surface: a) The → incident ray, normal to surface, and reflected ray lie in the same plane. b) The → angle of incidence (with the normal to the surface) is equal to the → angle of reflection.

law; → reflection.

law of refraction
  قانون ِ شکست   
qânun-e šekast (#)

Fr.: loi de réfraction   

One of the two laws governing → refraction of light when it enters another transparent medium: a) The → incident ray, normal to the surface, and refracted ray, all lie in the same plane. b) → Snell's law is satisfied.

law; → refraction.

law of sines
  قانون ِ سینوس‌ها   
qânun-e sinushâ

Fr.: loi des sinus   

In any triangle the sides are proportional to the sines of the opposite angles: a/sin A = b/sin B = c/sin C, where A, B, and C are the three vertices and a, b, and c are the corresponding sides.

law; → sine.

lawrencium
  لاؤرنسیوم   
lawrensiom (#)

Fr.: lawrencium   

An artificially produced → radioactivechemical element; symbol Lr (formerly Lw). → Atomic number 103; → atomic weight of most stable isotope 262; → melting point about 1,627°C; → boiling point and → specific gravity unknown; → valence +3. The longest half-life associated with this unstable element is 3.6 hour 262Lr. Credit for the first synthesis of this element in 1971 is given jointly to American chemists from the University of California laboratory in Berkeley under Albert Ghiorso and the Russian team at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Reactions lab in Dubna, under Georgi N. Flerov.

Named the American physicist Ernest 0. Lawrence (1901-1958), who developed the → cyclotron, + → -ium.

laws of dynamics
  قانون‌های ِ توانیک   
qânunhâ-ye tavânik

Fr.: lois de dynamique   

The three basic laws of → dynamics which were first formulated by Isaac Newton in his classical work "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" published in 1687. → Newton's first law of motion; → Newton's second law of motion; → Newton's third law of motion.

law; → dynamics.

layer
  لایه   
lâyé (#)

Fr.: couche   

A thickness of some material laid on or spread over a surface.

From M.E. leyer, legger + -er. The first element from layen, leggen "to lay," from O.E. lecgan; cf. Du. leggen; Ger. legen; O.N. legja; Goth. lagjan

Lâyé "layer," from lâ, lây "fold" + nuance suffix of nouns.

Layzer-Irvine equation
  هموگش ِ لیزر-آیروین   
hamugeš-e Layzer-Irvine

Fr.: équation de Layzer-Irvine   

The ordinary Newtonian energy conservation equation when expressed in expanding cosmological coordinates. More specifically, it is the relation between the → kinetic energy per unit mass associated with the motion of matter relative to the general → expansion of the Universe and the → gravitational potential energy per unit mass associated with the departure from a homogeneous mass distribution. In other words, it deals with how the energy of the → Universe is partitioned between kinetic and potential energy. Also known as → cosmic energy equation. In its original form, the Layzer-Irvine equation accounts for the evolution of the energy of a system of → non-relativistic particles, interacting only through gravity, until → virial equilibrium is reached. But it has recently been generalized to account for interaction between → dark matter and a homogeneous → dark energy component. Thus, it describes the dynamics of local dark matter perturbations in an otherwise homogeneous and → isotropic Universe (P. P. Avelino and C. F. V. Gomes, 2013, arXiv:1305.6064).

W. M. Irvine, 1961, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University; D. Layzer, 1963, Astrophys. J. 138, 174; → equation.

Le Chatelier's Principle
  پروز ِ لو شاتولیه   
parvaz-e Le Chatelier

Fr.: principe de Le Chatelier   

A change in one of the variables (such as temperature, pressure, and concentration of various species) that describe a system at equilibrium produces a shift in the position of the equilibrium that counteracts the effect of this change.

Named after the French chemist and engineer Henry Louis Le Chatelier (1850-1936); → principle.

lead
  سرب   
sorb (#)

Fr.: plomb   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Pb (L. plumbum, of unknown origin). Atomic number 82; atomic weight 207.2; melting point 327.502°C; boiling point about 1,740°C. One of the oldest metals used by humanity, because of its relatively low melting point.

O.E. lead, from W.Gmc. *loudhom (cf. O.Fris. lad, M.Du. loot "lead," Ger. Lot "weight, plummet").

Sorb, from Mid.Pers. srub "lead;" Av. sru- "lead."

leader spot
  لکه‌ی ِ پیشرو   
lakke-ye pišrow (#)

Fr.: tache de tête   

In a → sunspot group, the first spot to form in the direction of rotation and the last to disappear. It is the largest, the strongest in magnetic intensity, and the closest to the solar equator among the group sunspots. See also → follower spot.

From M.E. leder(e), O.E. lædan "cause to go with one, lead," from W.Gmc. *laithjan (cf. O.S. lithan, O.N. liða "to go," O.H.G. ga-lidan "to travel," Goth. ga-leiþan "to go"); → spot.

Lakké, → spot; pišrow "leader, forerunner," from piš "in front, forward, before" (Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier;" O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of") + row "going," present stem of raftan "to go, elapse, glide by, depart" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

leaf
  برگ   
barg (#)

Fr.: feuille   

One of the organs, usually green and flat, growing from the side of a stem or branch or direct from the root of a tree or plant. A leaf constitutes a unit of the foliage, and functions primarily in food manufacture by → photosynthesis.

M.E. leef, lef; O.E. leaf; cf. O.S. lof, O.N. lauf, O.Fris. laf, Du. loof, O.H.G. loub, Ger. Laub.

Barg "leaf" (Tabari, Gilaki valg, balg; Kurd. belg, balk, Semnâni valg); Mid.Pers. warg "leaf;" Av. varəka- "leaf;" cf. Skt. valká- "bark, bast, rind;" Russ. volokno "fibre, fine combed flax."

leap
  اندرهلی   
andarheli

Fr.: bissextile, intercalaire   

In a calendar, having an extra day or month inserted.

O.E. hleapan "to jump, run, leap" (cf. O.S. hlopan, O.N. hlaupa, O.Fris. hlapa, Du. lopen, Ger. laufen "to run," Goth. us-hlaupan "to jump up"), of uncertain origin, with no known cognates beyond Germanic. The noun is O.E. hlyp (Anglian *hlep). Noun in leap year, so called from its causing fixed festival days to "leap" ahead one day in the week.

Andarheli, from andarhel, verbal noun of andarhelidan, andarheštan "to insert," from andar-inter- + helidan, heštan "to place, put" from Mid.Pers. hištan, hilidan "to let, set, leave, abandon;" Parthian Mid.Pers. hyrz; O.Pers. hard- "to send forth;" ava.hard- "to abandon;" Av. harəz- "to discharge, send out; to filter," hərəzaiti "releases, shoots;" cf. Skt. srj- "to let go or fly, throw, cast, emit, put forth;" Pali sajati "to let loose, send forth."

leap day
  روز ِ اندرهلی   
ruz-e andarheli

Fr.: jour intercalaire   

The extra day added to a solar calendar (e.g. Gregorian, Iranian) in a leap year.

leap; → day.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>