An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
levo-, lev-
  چپ-   
cap- (#)

Fr.: levo-   

A combining form meaning "left" and "counterclockwise," used in the formation of compound words, such as → levorotation, levocardia, levoglucose, etc. The variant lev- occurs before vowels. Compare → dextro-.

From L. laevo-, from laevus, cf. Gk. laios, Russ. levyj, + epenthetic vowel -o-.

Cap-, from cap "left," of unknown etymology.

levorotation
  چپ‌چرخش   
capcarxeš

Fr.: lévorotation   

The counterclockwise rotation of the → plane of polarization of light (as observed when looking straight through the incoming light) by certain substances.

Adj. related to → levorotation.

levorotatory
  چپ‌چرخ   
capcarx

Fr.: lévogyre   

Relating to an → optically active substance that brings about → levorotation.

Adj. related to → levorotation.

lexicography
  واژه‌نگاری   
vâženegâri

Fr.: lexicographie   

A branch of → linguistics that deals with the principle and methods of writing dictionaries.

lexicology; → -graphy.

lexicology
  واژه‌شناسی   
vâžešnâsi (#)

Fr.: lexicologie   

A branch of → linguistics that studies the formation, meaning, and use of words and their idiomatic combinations. In contrast to → terminology, lexicology is based on words and does not conceive of meaning unless it is related to the word.

From lexic, from Gk. lexicon, noun use of lexikos "pertaining to words," from lexis "word; speech" (+ -ikos, → -ics), from legein "to say, speak, recount," + -o-, + → -logy.

Vâžešnâsi, from vâžé, → word, + -šenâsi, → -logy.

Leyden jar
  بطری ِ لیده   
botri-ye Leydé

Fr.: bouteille de Leyde   

An early form of → capacitors which is a glass jar coated inside and outside about half way up the side with metal foil. A chain connects the inner coating to a rod which usually terminates in a small brass knob. The jar is charged by connecting the knob, that is the inner metal coating, to a charged body, meanwhile grounding the outer coating. Same as Leiden jar

Named after Leyden (Leiden) the city where it was invented by the Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1745, independently from the German Ewald Georg von Kleist; jar a usually "cylindrical vessel," from M.Fr. jarre, from Provençal jarra, from Ar. jarrah.

Botri, → bottle.

Li I line
  خط ِ Li I   
xatt-e Li I

Fr.: raie Li I   

lithium I line.

lithium; I for → neutral atom; → line.

Li-rich giant
  غول ِ لیتیوم-پردار   
qul-e Li-pordâr

Fr.: géante rich en Li   

A → giant star whose observed → lithium abundance is much higher (A(Li) ~ 2.95) than that predicted by stellar → evolutionary models. Standard evolutionary models predict severe → depletion of surface Li → abundance, which is as low as 1.4 → dex in K giants, a factor of about 80 lower than the maximum value of about 3.3 dex observed in → main sequence stars. Observations confirm model predictions showing much less Li compared to model predictions in most → red giant branch (RGB) stars (Kumar et al., 2018, J. Astrophys. Astr. 39, 25 and references therein).

lithium; → rich; → giant.

Libra
  ترازو   
Tarâzu (#)

Fr.: Balance   

The Scales. An inconspicuous constellation in the southern hemisphere and a sign of the → Zodiac, at 15h 30m right ascension, 15° south declination. Abbreviation: Lib; genitive: Librae.

L. libra "balance," of obscure origin.

Tarâzu "balance, scales," Mid.Pers. tarâzên-, taraênidan "to weigh," Proto-Iranian *tarāz-, from *tarā- "balance, scale" (cf. Skt. tulā- "scales, balance, weight," from tul- "to weigh, make equal in weight, equal," tolayati "weighs, balances," L. tollere "to raise," Gk. talanton "balance, weight," Atlas "the Bearer" of Heaven," Lith. tiltas "bridge;" PIE base telə- "to lift, weigh") + Av. az- "to convey, conduct, drive," azaiti drives" (cf. Skt. aj- "to dive, sling," ájati "drives," ajirá- "agile, quick," Gk. agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," L. agere "to do, set in motion, drive," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, move," → act).

libration
  هلازان، رخگرد   
halâzân, roxgard (#)

Fr.: libration   

Small oscillations of a → celestial body about its mean position. The term is used mainly to mean the Moon's libration caused by the apparent wobble of the Moon as it orbits the Earth. The Moon always keeps the same side toward the Earth, but due to libration, 59% of the Moon's surface can be seen over a period of time. This results from three kinds of libration working in combination: → libration in longitude, → libration in latitude, and → diurnal libration. See also: → geometrical libration, → physical libration.

L. libration- "a balancing."

Halâzân "to and fro motion, oscillation," literally "a swing: a seat suspended by ropes on which a person may sit for swinging," from Gilaki halâcin "a swing," Ilâmi harazân "a swing," variants (Dehxodâ) holucin, holu "a swing," probably from Proto-Ir. *harz- "to send, to set."
Roxgard, literally "turning the face," from rox, variant ru(y) "face, surface; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + gard "turning, changing," from gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

libration in latitude
  هلازان ِ ورونایی   
halâzân-e varunâ-yi

Fr.: libration en latitude   

A tiny oscillating motion of the Moon arising from the fact that the Moon's axis is slightly inclined relative to the Earth's. More specifically, the Moon's polar axis is tilted nearly 7° with respect to the plane of its orbit around Earth. Hence for half of each orbit we see slightly more of the north pole when its tipped toward us, and for the other half we see slightly more of its south pole. Libration in latitude displaces the mean center of the Moon north-south by between 6°.5 and 6°.9.

libration; → latitude.

libration in longitude
  هلازان ِ درژنایی   
halâzân-e derežnâyi

Fr.: libration en longitude   

A tiny oscillating motion of the → Moon arising from the fact that the Moon's orbit is not a precise circle but rather an → ellipse. Therefore, Moon is sometimes a little closer to the Earth than at other times, and as a result its → orbital velocity varies a bit. Since the Moon's rotation on its own axis is more regular, the difference appears as a slight east-west oscillation. Libration in longitude is the most significant kind of libration. It varies between about 4°.5 and 8°.1 because of gravitational perturbations in the Moon's orbit caused by the Sun.

libration; → longitude.

life
  زیست   
zist (#)

Fr.: vie   

The condition that distinguishes living organisms from inorganic objects, i.e. non-life, and dead organisms. It is manifested by growth through metabolism, reproduction, and the power of adaptation to environment through changes originating internally.

O.E. life, from P.Gmc. *liba- (cf. O.N. lif "life, body," Du. lijf "body," O.H.G. lib "life," Ger. Leib "body"), properly "continuance, perseverance," from PIE *lip- "to remain, persevere, continue, live;" cf. Gk. liparein "to persist, persevere."

Zist "life, existence," from zistan "to live;" Mid.Pers. zivastan "to live," zivižn "life," zivik, zivandag "alive, living;" O.Pers./Av. gay- "to live," Av. gaya- "life," gaeθâ- "being, world, mankind," jivya-, jva- "aliving, alive;" cf. Skt. jiva- "alive, living;" Gk. bios "life;" L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" O.E. cwic "alive;" E. quick; Lith. gyvas "living, alive;" PIE base *gweie- "to live."

lift
  بالابر   
bâlâbar (#)

Fr.: portance   

In fluid mechanics, the component of aerodynamical force which is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. In aeronautics, the perpendicular component of the force of the air against an airplane; the component that is effective in supporting the plane's weight. → drag; → thrust.

M.E. liften, from O.N. lypta "to raise;" cf. M.L.G. lüchten, Du. lichten, Ger. lüften "to lift;" O.E. lyft "heaven, air."

Bâlâbar "lift," from bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height" (variants boland "high," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Lori dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high") + bar present stem of bordan "to carry, transport" (Mid.Pers. burdan; O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive);" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").

light
  ۱) نور، لوژ؛ ۲) سبک   
1) (n.) nur (#), luž (#); 2) (adj.) sabok (#)

Fr.: 1) lumière; 2) léger   

1) That portion of → electromagnetic radiation visible to the human → eye. However, other bands of the → electromagnetic spectrum are also often referred to as different forms of light.
2) Of little weight; not heavy.

1) O.E. leoht, leht, from W.Gmc. *leukhtam (cf. O.Fris. liacht, M.Du. lucht, Ger. Licht), from PIE *leuk- "light, brightness," cognate with Pers. rowšan "bright, clear," ruz "day," rowzan "window, aperture;" foruq "light," and afruxtan "to light, kindle;" Mid.Pers. rôšn "light; bright, luminous," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-rocânak "window;" O.Pers. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant;" akin to Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining," roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); Fr. lumière.
2) From O.E. leoht, from P.Gmc. *lingkhtaz (cf. O.N. lettr, Swed. lätt, O.Fris., M.Du. licht, Ger. leicht, Goth. leihts), from PIE base *le(n)gwh- "easy, agile, nimble."

1) Nur, from Ar.
Luž "light," in Sangesari (luženg variant of rowzan "vent, window"), variant of Pers. ruz "→ day," cognate with light, as above.
2) Sabok, from Mid.Pers. sapuk "light, brisk;" from O.Pers. *θapu-ka-, from Proto-Iranian *θrapu-ka-, from PIE *trep- "to shake, tremble;" cf. Gk. trepein "to turn;" L. trepidus "agitated, anxious;" Skt. trepa- "hasty."

light adaptation
  نیاوش به روشنایی   
niyâveš bé rowšanâyi

Fr.: adaptation à la lumière   

The reflex adaptation of the eye to bright light, consisting of an increase in the number of functioning cones, accompanied by a decrease in the number of functioning rods; opposed to dark adaptation.

light; → adaptation.

light clutter
  آلوزه‌ی ِ نوری   
âluze-ye nuri

Fr.:   

A bright, confusing, and excessive grouping of light sources. Light clutter is a type of → light pollution. It is a general term relating to lights put up everywhere, without regard to what their purpose really is.

light; → clutter.

light cone
  مخروط ِ نور   
maxrut-e nur (#)

Fr.: cône de lumière   

The set of all directions in which a light signal can travel toward an event (past light cone) or from an event (future light cone).

light; → cone.

light curve
  نور-خم، خم ِ نور   
nur-xam, xam-e nur

Fr.: courbe de lumière   

1) A curve showing the behavior of the light from a → variable star over a period of time.
2) → supernova light curve.

light; → curve.

light cylinder
  استوانه‌ی ِ نور   
ostovâne-ye nur

Fr.: cylindre de lumière   

A cylinder of radius cP/(2π) around a → pulsar's spin axis, where P is the pulsar period and c the → speed of light. At this surface, the velocity of a hypothetical object that corotates with the → neutron star would reach the speed of light.

light; → cylinder.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>