An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
artificial horizon
  افق ِ ساختگی   
ofoq-e sâxtegi

Fr.: horizon artificiel   

A shallow flat vessel filled with → mercury or some other viscous → liquid used in special → sextant for measuring altitudes of celestial bodies at sea in the absence of a → visible horizon.

artificial; → horizon.

artificial language
  زبان ِ ساختگی   
zabân-e sâxtegi

Fr.: langue artificielle   

An artificially created language system for international communication or for a specific intellectual or scientific purpose. Examples include Esperanto, computer programing languages, → symbolic logic, and → tensor analysis.

artificial; → language.

artificial light
  نور ِ ساختگی   
nur-e sâxtegi

Fr.: lumière artificielle   

Any light other than that which proceeds from the heavenly bodies.

artificial; → light.

artificial satellite
  ماهواره   
mâhvâré (#)

Fr.: satellite artificiel   

A man-made equipment that orbits around Earth or a solar system body.

artificial; → satellite.

artificial star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ساختگی   
setâre-ye sâxtegi

Fr.: étoile artificielle   

In → adaptive optics, a point source created on the sky by means of a laser beam in order to correct for the → atmospheric turbulence. A laser tuned to the wavelength of 589 nm will excite sodium atoms at an altitude of ~ 100 km in the Earth's atmosphere, producing an artificial "star."

artificial; → star.

asbestos
  پنبه‌ی ِ کوهی، ~ نسوز   
panbe-ye kuhi (#), ~ nasuz (#)

Fr.: aminate   

A family of fibrous mineral silicates that are incombustible, resistant to chemicals, and do not conduct electricity. In the past asbestos has been widely used for a range of fireproof materials and in the building industry. Asbestos causes very serious health problems if the fibers are inhaled (bronchial cancer, laryngeal cancer, and mesothelioma).

M.E. albeston, abestus, from O.Fr. abeste, abestos, from L. asbestos "quicklime," from Gk. asbestos, literally "inextinguishable," from → a- "not" + sbestos, verbal adjective from sbennynai "to quench."

Panbe-ye kuhi, literally "mountain cotton," from panbé, → cotton, + kuhi "pertaining to mountains," from kuh, → mountain.
Panbe-ye nasuz, literally "non-inflammable cotton," from panbé + nasuz "non-inflammable," from na- "not," → a- + suz-, suxtan, → burn.

ascend
  فرازیدن   
farâzidan (#)

Fr.: monter, s'élever   

1) To move, climb, or go upward; mount; rise.
2) To rise to a higher point, rank, or degree; proceed from an inferior to a superior degree or level (Dictionary.com).

M.E. ascenden, from L. ascendere "to climb up, mount," from → ad- "to" + scandere "to climb," → scan.

Farâzidan, from farâz "above, over, aloft."

ascendant
  فرازان   
farâzân

Fr.: ascendant   

1a) A position or condition of dominance, superiority or control.
1b) An ancestor; forebear.
2a) Ascending; rising.
2b) superior; predominant.

ascend.

ascending node
  گره ِ فرازشی   
gereh-e farâzeši

Fr.: nœud ascendant   

The point in an orbit where the orbiting body crosses a reference plane, such as the ecliptic or the celestial equator, going from south to north. The celestial longitude of the ascending node is one of the elements of the orbit. → descending node.

ascend; → -ing; → node.

ascension
  فرازش   
farâzeš

Fr.: ascension   

The act of ascending; ascent.

Verbal noun of → ascend; → -tion.

ASCII
  اسکی   
ASCII

Fr.: ASCII   

A standard code or protocol for displaying → characters as numbers. Each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined. For example, the ASCII code for uppercase C is 67 and for lowercase c is 99. Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another.

Short for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ash
  خاکستر   
xâkestar (#)

Fr.: cendre   

The powdery residue that remains after something is burnt. → ashen light.

M.E. a(i)sshe; O.E. asce, æsce; cf. Frisian esk, Dutch asch, O.N., O.H.G. aska, Ger. Asche; akin to Gk. azein "to dry up, parch," L. arere "be dry," → arid, Skt. asa- "ashes," PIE root *as- "to burn, glow."

Xâkestar, ultimately from Proto-Iranian *aika-âtar- literally "fire dust," from *aika- (Pers. xâk "dust, earth," → soil) + *ātar- (Pers. âzar, âtaš, → fire); cf. Malâyeri xâkesar, Qasrâni xâksar.

ashen light
  نور ِ خاکستری   
nur-e xâkestari (#)

Fr.: lumière cendrée   

The faint glow occasionally observed on the unlit area of Venus in its crescent phase. Its cause is not known with certainty, but it might result from bombardment of atmospheric atoms and molecules by energetic particles and radiation, as with terrestrial airglow.

ash; → light.

Asia
  آسیا   
Âsiyâ (#)

Fr.: Asie   

The largest of the world's continents (about 41,440,000 sq. km.), bounded by Europe and the Arctic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.

From L. Asia, from Gk. Asia, apparently first used by Herodotus (about 440 BC) in reference to Anatolia or to the Persian Empire, in contrast to Greece and Egypt. Of uncertain origin.

aspect
  نمود   
nemud (#)

Fr.: aspect   

The apparent position of a body in the Solar System relative to the Sun, as seen from Earth. The main aspects are conjunction, greatest elongation, opposition, and quadrature.

Aspect from L. aspectus "looking, view, appearance," p.p. of aspicere "to look at," from ad- "to" + specere "to look," cognate with Gk. skeptesthai "to examine, consider," Av. spas- "to watch, look," Skt. spaz "to see, behold, look at;" PIE *spek- "to observe, look".

Nemud from nemudan "to show, demonstrate, exhibit, appear"

Aspect experiment
  آزمایش ِ اسپه   
âzmâyeš-e Aspect

Fr.: expérience d'Aspect   

A series of experiments carried out in the early 1980s by Alain Aspect and his colleagues that showed the violation of → Bell's inequality. Accordingly, quantum phenomena cannot be described by the → hidden variable theories, contrarily to the → EPR paradox interpretation.

Alain Aspect (1947-); → experiment. Aspect et al., 1982, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 49, No. 25 and references therein.

asperity
  زفتی   
zafti

Fr.: aspérité   

1) Roughness or unevenness of surface.
2) Physics: A microscopic projection on a metal surface resulting from normal surface finishing processes.
3) Geology: A site on a → fault surface where the two sides are held together by an area of higher strength than the areas surrounding it. When the stress on the fault exceeds the strength of the asperity, the asperity fails as an → earthquake.

M.E. asperite, from O.Fr. asperité "difficulty, painful situation," from L. asperitas, from asper "rough, harsh," of unknown origin.

From zaft "thick, gross, rude," (Steingass, Dehxodâ), + noun suffix -i.

assembly
  همایش   
hamâyeš (#)

Fr.: assemblée   

A company of persons gathered for a common reason, as for deliberation, legislation, worship, or entertainment.
The act of assembling; the state of being assembled.

M.E. assemblee, from M.Fr., from O.Fr., from assembler "to gather together."

Hamâyeš, from ham- "together," → com- + âyeš "coming," from ây- present stem of âmadan "to come;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" cf. Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" Gk. eimi "I go," L. ire "to go, walk," eo "I go;" Tokharian AB i-; PIE *ei- "to go, to walk."

assign
  نشاردن   
nešârdan

Fr.: assigner   

1) To give or allocate; allot.
2) To give out or announce as a task.
3) To designate; name; specify (Dictionary.com).

M.E. assignen, from O.Fr. assiginer "assign; appoint legally; allot," from L. assignare "to mark out, to allot by sign," from → ad- "to" + signare "to make a sign," from signum "mark," → sign

Nešârdan, from neš, → sign, + nuance suffix -âr.

assignation
  نشارش   
nešâreš

Fr.: rendez-vous, attribution   

1) An appointment for a meeting.
2) The act of assigning; → assignment (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → assign.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>