An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>

Number of Results: 12942 Search : far
ozone hole
  سوراخِ اُزون   
surâx-e ozon (#)

Fr.: trou d'ozone   

Not really a "hole," but a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring (August-October). It was first noticed in the 1970s by a research group from the British Antarctic Survey.

ozone; → hole.

ozone layer
  لایه‌یِ اُزون   
lâye-ye ozon (#)

Fr.: couche d'ozone   

An atmospheric layer that contains a high proportion of oxygen that exists as ozone. It acts as a filtering mechanism against incoming ultraviolet radiation. It is located between the troposphere and the stratosphere, around 15 to 20 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

ozone; → layer.

ozone shield
  سپرِ اُزون   
separ-e ozon (#)

Fr.: bouclier d'ozone   

The ozone layer within the stratosphere that filters out potentially lethal intensities of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.

ozone; shield, from O.E. scield, scild, related to sciell "seashell, eggshell," from P.Gmc. *skeldus (cf. Du. schild, Ger. Schild, Goth. skildus); PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off;" → ozone.

P Cygni profile
  فراپال ِ P Cygni   
farâpâl-e P Cygni

Fr.: profil P Cygni   

A feature in a stellar spectrum showing strong hydrogen and helium emission lines with absorption lines on their blueward wing. This line profile indicates a strong outflow of matter from a star. → inverse P Cygni line profile.

After → P Cygni star.

P Cygni star
  ستاره‌ی ِ P Cygni   
setâre-ye P Cygni

Fr.: étoile P Cygni   

1) A variable star in the constellation → Cygnus, and one of the most luminous stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. It is a → Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) star of → spectral type B2 Ia located about 7000 light-years away. It was unknown until the 17th century, when it suddenly brightened to third magnitude. It briefly disappeared and returned, and today has a magnitude of about 4.8.
2) A member of a class of high-luminosity, early-type stars, in which spectral lines have a characteristic → P Cygni profile.

P, letter of alphabet; Cygni, pertaining to → Cygnus; → star.

p mode
  ترز ِ p، مُد ِ ~   
tarz-e p, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode p   

Acoustic waves trapped inside stars, which act as a resonating cavity, exhibiting millions of oscillation modes or standing waves. Same as → pressure mode. P-mode oscillations in the Sun have frequencies in the 0.2-5.5 mHz range. They are particularly intense in the 2-4 mHz range, where they are often referred to as solar "5-minute oscillations." See also → pulsation mode.

P, referring to pressure; → mode.

P-symmetry
  همامونی ِ همالی   
hamâmuni-ye hamâli

Fr.: symétrie de parité   

Same as → parity symmetry.

parity; → symmetry.

P-wave
  موج ِ P   
mowj-e P

Fr.: onde P   

compressional wave.

P, referring to → pressure; → wave.

packing fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ انباشتگی   
barxe-ye anbâštegi (#)

Fr.: coefficient de tassement   

The difference between the isotopic mass of a nuclide and its mass number divided by its mass number. The packing fraction is a measure of the stability of the nucleus.

Packing, from the verb pack "to put together in a pack," from the noun pack, from M.E. pak, packe, from M.D. pac or perhaps M.L.G. pak; → fraction.

Barxé, → fraction; anbâštegi quality noun of anbâštan, anbârdan "to fill, to replete;" Mid.Pers. hambāridan "to fill;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-par-, from prefix ham- + par- "to fill;" cf. Av. par- "to fill," parav-, pauru-, pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Mid.Pers. purr "full;" Mod.Pers. por "full, much, very;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. polus "many," plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full.

pair
  ۱) جفت؛ ۲) همال   
1) joft; 2) hamâl (#)

Fr.: paire   

1) Something consisting of or regarded as having two parts or pieces joined together. → pair annihilation; → pair production.
2) Two identical, similar, or corresponding things.

M.E., from O.Fr. paire, from L. paria "equals," neuter plural of par (genitive paris) "a pair, counterpart, equal."

1) Joft "pair, couple," Lori, Laki jeft, Qâyeni jof, Tabari jeft, Mid.Pers. yuxt "pair, couple," Av. yuxta- "a team of horses," from yaog- "to yoke, harness, put to; to join, unite," infinitive yuxta, Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke," Mod.Pers. yuq "yoke;" cf. Skt. yuga- "yoke," Gk. zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite," L. jugare "to join," from jugum "yoke," P.Gmc. *yukam, E. yoke; PIE *yeug- "to join."
Hamâl, from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same;" Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-) + suffix -âl, → -al.

pair annihilation
  نابودی ِ جفت   
nâbudi-ye joft

Fr.: annihilation de paire   

Mutual destruction of a particle and its antiparticle, such as an electron-positron pair, when they collide. The total energy of the two particles is converted into energy as gamma rays. It is the inverse process to → pair production.

pair; → annihilation

pair instability
  ناپایداری ِ جفت   
nâpâydâri-ye joft

Fr.: instabilité de paire   

An instability arising from the → pair production inside a → massive star leading to energetic → supernova explosions. The pair instability occurs when, late in the star's life, the core reaches a sufficiently high temperature after → carbon burning, a condition in which the pair production can take place. The pairs of electron and positron annihilate to form a neutrino and an anti-neutrino. Consequently, the pressure drops and the outer layers fall in onto the core. The temperature and pressure increase rapidly and eventually titanic nuclear burning causes an extraordinary explosion with energies higher than 1051 erg. See also → pair-instability supernova and → pulsational pair-instability supernova.

pair; → instability.

pair production
  فر‌آورش ِ جفت   
farâvareš-e joft

Fr.: production de paires   

The creation of an → elementary particle and its → antiparticle from a → boson. For example, the formation of an → electron and a → positron in the interaction of high-energy → gamma ray photons, having at least 1.02 Mev, with an → atomic nucleus (γ → e- + e+). The → rest masses of the electron and positron being 0.51 MeV each, the excess energy will be carried away by these two particles. Pair production is the inverse process to → pair annihilation.

pair; → production

pair-instability
  ناپایداری ِ جفت   
nâpâydâri-ye joft

Fr.: instabilité de paire   

pair instability

pair; → instability.

pair-instability supernova
  اَبَر-نو‌اختر ِ ناپایداری ِ جفت   
abar-now-axtar-e nâpâydâri-ye joft

Fr.: supernova à instabilité de paires   

A special type of → supernova that would result from the → pair instability in → supermassive stars with a mass range between 140 and 260 Msun in a low → metallicity environment. Such objects descended from the → Population III stars in the early history of the Universe. Such supernovae are the most powerful thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Pair-instability supernovae may have played an important role in the synthesis of → heavy elements. Moreover, the energetic feedback of the processed elements to their surroundings could have affected the structure and evolution of the early Universe (See, e.g., Fryer et al. 2001, ApJ 550, 372; Heger & Woosley 2002, ApJ 567, 532). See also → pulsational pair-instability supernova.

pair; → instability; → supernova.

pairing energy
  کاروژ ِ جفتش   
kâruž-e jofteš

Fr.: énergie de parité   

In nuclear physics, the extra binding energy associated with pairs of nucleons of the same kind. This quantity expresses the fact that nuclei with odd numbers of neutrons and protons have less energy and are less stable than those with even numbers of neutrons and protons.

Pairing, verbal noun of → pair; → energy.

palate
  کام   
kâm (#)

Fr.: palais   

The roof of the → mouth, separating the oral and nasal cavities. → hard palate; → soft palate.

M.E., from O.Fr. palat and directly from L. palatum "roof of the mouth."

Kâm "roof of the mouth," of unknown origin.

pale
  پال   
pâl

Fr.: pâle   

Lacking in color, not bright, weak in color or shade.

M.E., from O.Fr. paile "pale, light-colored," from L. pallidus "pale, pallid, colorless," from pallere "be pale, grow pale."

Pâl, from p(ox) + âl, a combination of (Delijân) pox "pale" + (Kurd) âl "pale."

paleo-
  پارین-، پارینه-، دیرین-، دیرینه-   
pârin- (#), pârine- (#), dirin- (#), dirine- (#)

Fr.: paléo-   

A prefix meaning "old, ancient" especially in reference to former geologic time periods, e.g. → paleoclimatology, → paleolithic, and → paleomagnetism.

From Gk. palaio-, combining form of palaios "old, ancient," from palai "long ago, far back," from PIE root *kwel- "to turn, move about," also "far"

Pârin, pâriné "ancient," also "last year" (contraction of pâr sâl), related to pir "old;" Mid.Pers. pir "old, aged, ancient;" Av. parô (adv.) "before, before (of time), in front (of space);" cf. Skt. puáh, combining form of puras "before (of time and place), in front, in advance."
Dirin, diriné "old, ancient, of times past," from dir "old, antique; a long while" + suffix -in. The first component from Mid.Pers. dêr, variants dagr, drâz "long" (Mod.Pers. derâz "long," variant Laki, Kurdi derež); O.Pers. darga- "long;" Av. darəga-, darəγa- "long," drājištəm "longest;" cf. Skt. dirghá- "long (in space and time);" L. longus "long;" Gk. dolikhos "elongated;" O.H.G., Ger. lang; Goth. laggs "long;" PIE base *dlonghos- "long." The second component -in adj. suffix, from Mid.Pers. -ên (as in âhênên, zarrên), from Av. -aēna- (ayanhaēna- "made of iron," zaranaēna- "golden"); cf. Skt. -ēna-.

paleoclimate
  پارین-کلیما   
pârin-kelimâ

Fr.: paléoclimat   

The climate during a past geologic time or before historical records.

paleo-; → climate.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>