An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12935 Search : far
Phillips relation
  بازانش ِ فیلیپس   
bâzâneš-e Phillips

Fr.: relation de Phillips   

A correlation between the peak brightness of → Type Ia supernovae and the decline rate of their → light curve (15 days after the maximum). The decline rate is also correlated to the width of the peak brightness of the supernova. The brightest events are the broadest in time and brighter SNe Ia decline more slowly than dimmer ones. Applying the Phillips relation reduces the dispersion in the light curves of Type Ia SNe thus making them precise distance indicators which can be observed over large distances.

Named after Mark M. Phillips (1951-), American astronomer (Phillips et al. 1993, ApJ 413, L105); → relation.

philosopher
  فیلسوف، فلسفه‌دان   
filsuf (#), falsafedân (#)

Fr.: philosophe   

A person who engages in → philosophy.

M.E., from O.E. philosophe, from L. philosophus "philosopher," from Gk. philosophos "philosopher, sage," literally "lover of wisdom," → philosophy; the agent noun ending -er appears in early 14th century from an Anglo-French or O.Fr. variant of philosophe.

Filsuf, from Ar., from Gk., as above. Falsafedân, literally "philosophy knower," with -dân present stem of dânestan "to know," → science.

philosophize
  فلسفیدن   
falsafidan (#)

Fr.: philosopher   

To explain or argue in terms of philosophical speculations or theories.

philosophy; → -ize.

philosophy
  فلسفه   
falsafé (#)

Fr.: philosophie   

A conceptual study that attempts to understand reality and answer fundamental questions about knowledge, existence, life, morality, and human nature. Philosophy deals with issues that generally are not subject to investigation through experimental verification. It focuses on questions which cannot be answered by means of observation alone. See also → philosophy of science.

From O.Fr. filosofie "philosophy, knowledge," from L. philosophia, from Gk. philosophia "love of wisdom," from philo- "loving" combining form of philos "dear; friend," from philein  "to love," of unknown origin, +  sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" of unknown origin.

Falsafé, from Ar. falsafah, loan from Gk. philosophia, as above.

philosophy of science
  فلسفه‌ی ِ دانش   
falsafe-ye dâneš (#)

Fr.: philosophie des sciences   

The critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a particular branch of  knowledge. The philosophy of science is particularly concerned with the nature of scientific facts, the structure of scientific statements, and relations between them.

philosophy; → science.

phlogiston
  فلوژیستون   
fložiston (#)

Fr.: phlogiston   

A hypothetical substance that, prior to the discovery of → oxygen, was thought to be released during → combustion. → phlogiston theory.

From New Latin, from Gk. phlogiston, neuter of phlogistos "inflammable, burnt up," from phlogizein "to set on fire, burn," from phlox "flame, blaze;" from PIE root *bhel- "to shine, burn."

Fložiston, loan from Fr, as above.

phlogiston theory
  نگره‌ی ِ فلوژیستون   
negare-ye fložiston

Fr.: phlogistique   

An obsolete theory of combustion in which all flammable objects were supposed to contain a substance called → phlogiston, which was released when the object burned. The existence of this hypothetical substance was proposed in 1669 by Johann Becher, who called it terra pinguis "fat earth." For example, as wood burns it releases phlogiston into the air, leaving ash behind. Ash was therefore wood minus phlogiston. In the early 18th century Georg Stahl renamed the substance phlogiston. The theory was disproved by Antoine Lavoisier in 1783, who proved the principle of conservation of mass, refuted the phlogiston theory and proposed the oxygen theory of burning.

phlogiston; → theory.

Phobos
  فوبوس   
Fobos (#)

Fr.: Phobos   

The inner → satellite of → Mars orbiting less than 6,000 km above the surface of Mars, closer to its → primary than any other → moon in the → solar system. Phobos is irregularly shaped, 27 x 22 x 18 km in size and orbits Mars in 0.319 days. Phobos' orbit is decaying at a rate of about 2 centimeters per year; it is therefore expected to break up and crash onto Mars within the next 50 million years. See also: → Roche limit, → orbit decay.

In Gk. mythology, Phobos is one of the sons of Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus). The name means "fear, panic, flight."

Phoebe
  فویءبه   
Foebé (#)

Fr.: Phoebé   

The outermost of Saturn's known satellites, also known as Saturn IX. It is 220 km in diameter and orbits Saturn in 550.5 days at a distance of 12,952,000 km.

In Gk. mythology, Phoebe is the daughter of Uranus and Gaia; grandmother of Apollo and Artemis.

Phoebe ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ فو‌ءبه   
halqe-ye Phoebe

Fr.: anneau de Phœbé   

A giant ring around Saturn spanning an area of space from a distance of ~ 128 Saturn equatorial radii, RS (60,330 km) to 207 RS, that is, from about 7.7 × 106 to 12.4 × 106 km from the planet. Its vertical thickness is about 40 RS. The Phoebe ring was detected in 2009 using NASA's infrared → Spitzer Space Telescope. The Phoebe ring is made up mainly of dust particles about 10 to 20 microns in size, or about one-tenth to one-fifth the average width of a human hair. Rocks that are the size of soccer balls or larger with diameters of more than about 20 cm make up no more than about 10 percent of the ring (Verbiscer et al., 2009, Nature, 461, 1098).

Phoebe; → ring.

Phoenix
  ققنوس   
Qoqnos (#)

Fr.: Phénix   

A constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 0h 30m → right ascension, 50° south → declination. Its brightest star Alpha Phoenicis is of magnitude 2.4. Abbreviation: Phe; genitive: Phoenicis.

L. Phoenix, also phenix, from Gk. phoinix a mythical bird of great beauty which according to one account lived 500 years, burned itself to ashes on a pyre, and rose alive from the ashes to live another period.

Qoqnos, from Ar., from Gk., as above, or, for some reasons (mistake?), from Gk. kuknos, → Cygnus.

phone
  آوا   
âvâ (#)

Fr.: son   

A speech sound considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the sound system of a language.

From Gk. phone "voice, sound," phonein "to speak;" cf. L. fama "talk, reputation, fame."

Âva "voice, sound," related to âvâz "voice, sound, song" (both prefixed forms), bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng), vâžé "word," variants vâj-, vâk-, vâ-, vâz-, vât-; Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak."

phoneme
  واج   
vâj (#)

Fr.: phonème   

The smallest phonetic unit in a language that can distinguish one word from another.

From Fr. phonème, from Gk. phonema "speech sound, utterance," from phonein "to sound," → phone.

Vâj "voice," variant of vâž, vâz-, âvâz etc., → phone.

phonetics
  آواییک   
âvâyik (#)

Fr.: phonétique   

A branch of linguistics dealing with the analysis, description, and classification of speech sounds. More specifically, phonetics deals with the physical production of → phonemes regardless of language, while → phonology studies how those sounds are put together to create meaningful words in a particular language.

From phonetic, from N.L. phoneticus, from Gk. phonetikos "vocal," from phonet(os) "utterable," verbal adj. of phonein "to speak clearly, utter," from → phone + -ikos, → -ics.

&ACIRC;vâyik, from âvâ, → phone, + -ik, → -ics.

phono-
  آوا-   
âvâ- (#)

Fr.: phono-   

A combining form meaning "sound, voice," used in the formation of compound words. Also phon-, especially before a vowel.

From Gk. phon-, phono-, form → phone "voice, sound, speech"

phonology
  آواشناسی   
âvâšnâsi (#)

Fr.: phonologie   

A branch of linguistics that studies the rules in any given language that govern how → phonemes are combined to create meaningful words. Phonology and → phonetics study two different aspects of sound, but the concepts are dependent on each other in the creation of language.

phono-; → -logy.

phonon
  فونون   
fonon (#)

Fr.: phonon   

A quantum of vibrational or acoustic energy in a crystal lattice, being the analog of a photon of electromagnetic energy.

phono- + → -on.

phosphorescence
  فسفرستی   
fosforesti

Fr.: phosphorescence   

A specific type of → photoluminescence that continues for an appreciable time after the stimulating process has ceased. Phosphorescence is due to the existence of metastable → excited states of the atoms and molecules from which a change to the normal state is hindered for some reason or other. The change from the → metastable metastable state to the normal one becomes possible only as a result of some additional excitation, for example the application of heat.

phosphorus; → -escence.

phosphorus
  ۱) فسفر؛ ۲) روجا، ستاره‌ی ِ بامدادی   
1) fosfor (#); 2) rujâ, setâre-ye bâmdâdi (#)

Fr.: phosphore   

1) Nonmetallic chemical element; symbol P. → Atomic number 15; → atomic weight 30.97376; → melting point 44.1°C; → boiling point about 280°C. It was discovered by the German merchant Hennig Brand in 1669.
2) Greek name for the planet → Venus when it appears as a → morning star.

L. Phosphorus "morning star," from Gk. Phosphoros "morning star," literally "light bearing," from phos "light" + phoros "bearer," from pherein "to carry," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead" (→ periphery). The chemical element is such called because of its white color.

1) Fosfor, loan from Fr.
2) → morning star.

photino
  فوتینو   
fotino (#)

Fr.: photino   

The supersymmetric partner of the → photon.

From phot, from → photon + -ino supersymmetric particle suffix.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor Cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DB dea dec dec dec def def deh del den dep des det deu di- dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dot dou dri duo dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele ell emb emi Enc ene ens eph EPR equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai far Fec fem fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gam gas gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla God gra gra gra gra Gre Gre Gru gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hug Hun hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jac jet Joy jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor MRN mul Mus NaC nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nuc nuc nul nut obe obl obs occ oct off Olb one ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort oth out Owl P-s pal par par par par Pas pat pej peo per per per per per pha Phi pho pho pho phy pin Pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec Red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot row Rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>