An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
physical parameter
  پارامون ِ فیزیکی   
pârâmun-e fiziki

Fr.: paramètre physique   

Any of a set of physical properties whose values determine the characteristics or behavior of a system; for example, → mass, → size, → temperature, → luminosity, etc.

physical; → parameter.

physical phenomenon
  پدیده‌ی ِ فیزیکی   
padide-ye fiziki (#)

Fr.: phénomène physique   

A natural → phenomenon that can be explained by → physical laws.

physical; → phenomenon.

physical quantity
  چندای ِ فیزیکی   
candâ-ye fiziki (#)

Fr.: quantité physique   

A physical → property that can be measured and/or calculated.

physical; → quantity.

physical system
  راژمان ِ فیزیکی   
râžmân-e fiziki

Fr.: système physique   

A set of physical components chosen to study their relations.

physical; → system.

physicist
  فیزیکدان   
fizikdân (#)

Fr.: physicien   

A specialist in → physics.

From physic, → physics, + → -ist.

Fizikdân, from fizik, → physics, + -dân "knower," present stem of dânestan "to know," → science.

physics
  فیزیک   
fizik (#)

Fr.: physique   

The science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions.

M.E. fisyk(e), phisik(e), from O.Fr. fisique, from L. physica (fem. sing.) "study of nature," from Gk. physike episteme "knowledge of nature," from fem. of physikos "pertaining to nature," from physis "nature," from phyein "to bring forth, produce, make to grow," Gk. phy- "to become;" L. fui "I was," futurus "that is to be, future;" Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist; E. to be; O.Ir. bi'u "I am;" Lith. bu'ti "to be;" Rus. byt' "to be."

Loan from Fr. physique, as above.

physisorption
  فیزی-شمش   
fizi-šameš

Fr.: physisorption   

A kind of → adsorption in which the forces involved are → intermolecular  → van der Waals forces. Same as → physical adsorption. See also → chemisorption.

Physi-, from → physical; → sorption.

pi number
  عدد ِ پی   
adad-e pi (π)

Fr.: nombre pi (π)   

Symbol, π, for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter in Euclidean geometry; a fundamental mathematical constant, equal to 3.14159... π is an → irrational number (Lambert, 1761) and also a → transcendental number (von Lindemann, 1882). The most accurate determination of π prior to the Scientific Revolution belongs to the Iranian mathematician Jamshid Kashani, who gave 16 correct decimal places in A.D. 1424. With the advent of → calculus and more recently the invention of powerful computers, the decimal representation of π has now been computed to more than 1012 digits.

The π notation, representing the first letter of the Gk. word περιμετρον → perimeter, was first used by the British mathematician William Jones (1675-1749) in 1706. Its use was generalized after its adoption by the Swiss mathematician Leonard Euler (1707-1783) in 1737; → number.

Piazzi's Flying Star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پرنده‌ی ِ پیاتزی   
setâre-ye parande-ye Piazzi

Fr.: étoile volante de Piazzi   

Same as → 61 Cygni and → Bessel's star.

Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826) was the first to notice the large → proper motion of the star, in 1804. His observations over a period of 10 years revealed the largest proper motion ever detected for any star at the time, leading him to baptize it the "Flying Star;" → fly; → star.

Pickering series
  سری ِ پیکرینگ   
seri-ye Pikering (#)

Fr.: série de Pickering   

A series of → spectral lines of → singly ionized helium, observed in very hot → O-type and → Wolf-Rayet stars associated with transitions between the → energy level with → principal quantum number n = 4 and higher levels: n = 4-5 (10124 Å), n = 4-7 (5412 Å), n = 4-9 (4541 Å), n = 4-9 (4522 Å), and n = 4-11 (4200 ˚). The 4-6 (6560 Å) and 4-8 (4859 Å) transitions were originally not included in this series because they coincided with the hydrogen → Balmer series of lines and were thus obscured.

In honor of Edward C. Pickering (1846-1919), American astronomer and physicist; → series.

pico-
  پیکو-   
piko- (#)

Fr.: pico-   

A prefix denoting 10-12.

From It. piccolo "small."

Pictor
  نگارگر   
Negârgar (#)

Fr.: Peintre   

The Painter's Easel. A faint constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 5h 30m right ascension, 50° south declination. Its brightest star is of magnitude 3.2. Its second brightest star, → beta Pictoris, is famous for its → circumstellar disk of gas and dust. Abbreviation: Pic; genitive: Pictoris.

Pictor, short for Equuleus Pictoris "painter's easel," from L. pictor "painter," from pingere "to make pictures."

Negârgar "painter," from negâr present stem of negâštan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," from prefix ne- "down; into" (O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into;" cf. Skt. ni "down," nitaram "downward;" Gk. neiothen "from below;" E. nether; O.E. niþera, neoþera "down, downward, below, beneath," from P.Gmc. *nitheraz; Du. neder; Ger. nieder; PIE *ni- "down, below") + gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

picture
  فرتور   
fartur (#)

Fr.: image   

Any visible image, however produced. → photograph.

From L. pictura "painting," from pictus, p.p. of pingere "to make pictures, to paint."

Fartur "picture, image; reflexion, inversion" (Dehxodâ, Steingass); maybe from partow, → ray.

piece
  تکه   
tekké (#)

Fr.: pièce, morceau, tache   

1) A portion of an object or of material, produced by cutting, tearing, or breaking the whole.
2) An item forming part of a set.
3) A written, musical, or artistic creation (OxfordDictionaries.com).

M.E. pece, peece, from O.Fr. piece, from V.L. *pettia, probably from Gaulish (cf. Welsh peth "thing;" Breton pez "piece").

Teké "piece, patch."

piecewise
  تکه‌ای   
tekke-yi

Fr.: par morceaux   

Denoting a → function that is defined on a sequence of → intervals or pieces. For example: |x| = -x for x < 0, x = 0 for x = 0, and x = x for x > 0.

piece, + -wise, → clockwise.

piecewise continuous function
  کریای ِ پیوسته‌ی ِ تکه‌ای   
karyâ-ye peyvaste-ye tekke-yi

Fr.: fonction continue par morceaux   

A function f(x) in an interval if :1) the interval can be divided into a finite number of pieces in each of which f(x) is continuous, and 2) the limits of f(x) as x approaches the boundary point of each piece are finite. In other words, a piecewise continuous function is one that is made up of a finite number of continuous pieces.

piecewise; → continuous; → function.

piezoelectric effect
  اُسکر ِ فشاربرقی   
oskar-e fešârbarqi

Fr.: effet piézoélectrique   

The property exhibited by some crystals (notably quartz) that develop an electric charge or potential difference across them when subjected to mechanical strain; and conversely produce mechanical forces when a voltage is applied to them in a suitable manner.

From piezo-, from Gk. piezein "to press tight" + → electric; → effect.

oskar, → effect; fešârbarqi pertaining to fešârbarq, from fešâr, → pressure, + barq, → electricity.

pile
  تل   
tal (#)

Fr.: pile   

An assemblage of things laid or lying one upon the other (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. pile and directly from L. pila "pillar, mole of stone."

Tal "heap; hill," maybe related to Gk. tylos "a hard and thickened area on the skin, callus, lump," tymbos "burial mound, grave, tomb;" Av. tuma- "fat;" L. tumere "to swell," tumulus "raised heap of earth," tumidus "swollen;" tumor "a swelling."

pillar
  ستون   
sotun (#)

Fr.: pilier   

An elongated structure often found at the interface between an → H II region and its associated → molecular cloud. Also called → elephant trunk. The most famous examples are the "pillars of creation" in the → Eagle Nebula, which are several → light-years in length. There are indications for star formation at the tips of the pillars. In general the pillars point like fingers toward the young → massive stars ionizing the nebula. Most of the mass is concentrated in the head which has a bright rim facing the young stars.

M.E. pillare, O.Fr. piler, from M.L. pilare, from L. pila "pillar, stone barrier."

Sotun "pillar," → column.

pin
  آسه   
âsé (#)

Fr.: axe   

The component of a → planispheric astrolabe that is inserted in the back of the → mater. The pin enables the main parts of the instrument (the → alidade, the → rete, and the → rule) to rotate freely around the common center of the mater and the → tympanum (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).

M.E. pinne, from O.E. pinn "peg, bolt," from L. pinna "a feather, plume."

&ACIRC;sé, → axis.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>