An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
polarization
  قطبش   
qotbeš (#)

Fr.: polarisation   

1) Optics: A process or state in which the directions of the electric or magnetic fields of an → electromagnetic radiation change in a regular pattern. Light can be polarized by a variety of ways, involving the following processes: reflection, transmission, double refraction, and scattering. See also → unpolarized light; → linear polarization; → circular polarization; → elliptical polarization. The study of the polarization of light from astronomical sources can yield unique information in particular related to the properties of magnetic fields.
2) Electricity: A process or state in which the → dipole moments of → polar molecules in a → dielectric material get aligned under the action of an external electric field. Actually thin layers of bound charges with opposite signs appear on the surfaces of the dielectric.
3) Electricity: The accumulation of ions, produced during electrolysis, on the electrodes of a cell, increasing the resistance of the cell.

Verbal noun of → polarize.

polarization angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

Same as → polarizing angle and → Brewster angle.

polarization; → angle.

polarization charge
  بارِ قطبش   
bâr-e qotbeš

Fr.:   

Same as → bound charge.

polarization; → charge.

polarization degree
  درجه‌ی ِ قطبش   
daraje-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: degré de polarisation   

degree of polarization.

polarization; → degree.

polarization fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ قطبش   
barxe-ye qotbeš

Fr.: fraction de polarisation   

The ratio expressed by P = (Ipar - Iper) / (Ipar + Iper), where Ipar and Iper are the light intensities with the electric field vector respectively parallel and perpendicular to the incident beam.

polarization; → fraction.

polarize
  قطبیدن   
qotbidan (#)

Fr.: polariser   

To cause → polarization. To undergo polarization.

Infinitive of → polarization.

polarized
  قطبیده   
qotbidé (#)

Fr.: polarisé   

Of or pertaining to a medium or physical phenomenon that exhibits → polarization.

P.p. of → polarize.

polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده   
nur-e qotbidé (#)

Fr.: lumière polarisée   

Electromagnetic radiation in the optical region which has undergone → polarization.

Past participle of → polarize; → light.

polarizer
  قطبنده   
qotbandé (#)

Fr.: polariseur   

An optical device capable of transforming natural light into polarized light, usually by selective transmission of polarized rays.

Agent noun of → polarize.

polarizing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

The angle of → incidence for which the reflected light is completely polarized. Also called the → Brewster angle and → polarization angle. See also → Brewster's law.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → angle.

polarizing filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ قطبنده   
pâlâye-ye qotbandé (#)

Fr.: filtre polarisant   

A filter that polarizes light passing through it.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → filter.

polarizing prism
  منشور ِ قطبنده   
manšur-e qotbandé

Fr.: prisme polarisant   

A prism that is used to produce or analyze plane-polarized light.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → prism.

pole
  قطب   
qotb (#)

Fr.: pôle   

1) Either extremity of the axis of the Earth or of any spherical body.
2) Either of the two regions or parts of an electric battery, magnet, or the like, at which the magnetic flux density is concentrated.
3) → pole of a mirror.
4) The fixed point in a system of polar coordinates that serves as the origin.

M.E., from L. polus "end of an axis, the sky," from Gk. polos "pivot, pole," polein "move around;" from PIE base *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell;" cognate with Pers. carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart;" Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" cf. Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel" (loaned L.L. cyclus); L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "wheel."

Qotb, from Ar. quTb.

pole of a mirror
  قطب ِ آینه   
qotab-e âyene

Fr.: pôle de mirroir   

The point where the → principal axis passes through the mirror.

pole; → mirror.

pole star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطبی   
setâre-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: étoile polaire   

A star that lies in the direction pointed to by the Earth's → rotation axis. The term usually refers to the star → Polaris, which is the current → north celestial pole star. The → south celestial pole is not associated with any bright star.

pole; → star.

polhode
  قطبراه   
qotbrâh

Fr.: polhodie   

Mechanics: For a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, the closed curve described on the → inertia ellipsoid by the intersection with this ellipsoid of an axis parallel to the angular velocity vector and through the center.
Astro.: The path described by the North pole of the Earth in a reference frame attached to the Earth. The rotation axis of our planet is not fixed with respect to the Earth's crust. It describes a motion within a square with an amplitude reaching 20 m.

Polhode, from Fr. polhodie, coined by Louis Poinsot (1777-1859), a French mathematician and physicist, the inventor of geometrical mechanics, from → pole + Gk. hodos "way."

Qotbrâh, from gotb, → pole, + râh "way, path" (from Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street," also rah, ras "chariot;" from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf. Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot," rathyā- "road;" L. rota "wheel," rotare "to revolve, roll;" Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad; O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").

policy
  کاراه، کارراه   
kârâh, kârrâh

Fr.: 1) ligne d'action; 2) politique   

1) A definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc.
2) A course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. policie "government, civil administration," from O.Fr. policie "political organization, civil administration," from L.L. politia "the state, civil administration," from Gk. politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from polites "citizen," from polis "city, state."

Kârâh, contraction of kâr râh, or râh-e kâr literally "way of doing, ~ ~ action," from râh, → way, + kâr "doing, action, → work."

policy maker
  کاراه‌پرداز   
kârâh pardâz

Fr.: responsable politique, décideur   

A person responsible for making policy, especially in government (Dictionary.com).

policy; → make; → -er.

polish
  نسوکردن   
nasu kardan

Fr.: polir   

To make smooth and glossy by rubbing with something.

M.E. polishen, from O.Fr. poliss-, pr.p. stem of polir "to polish," from L. polire "to polish, make smooth," of unknown origin.

Nasu kardan (Dehxodâ) "to polish, smooth, brighten," from nasu "smooth, bright" (mirror, sword), Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian nswg "tender," from Proto-Iranian *ni-sau-, from prefix ni- "down," → ni- (PIE), + *sau- "to rub;" cf. Mod.Pers. sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch, to rub;" Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch."

polishing
  نسوکرد   
nasukard

Fr.: polissage   

A stage in the process of mirror making after grinding that puts a highly finished, smooth and apparently amorphous surface on a mirror. → figuring; → grinding.

Verbal noun of → polish.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>