An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12974 Search : far
potassium
  پتاسیوم   
potâsiom (#)

Fr.: potassium   

A silvery-white metallic chemical element; symbol K (from L. kalium "potash"). Atomic number 19; atomic weight 39.0983; melting point 63.25°C; boiling point 760°C.

Coined by the English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829), who first isolated it in 1807 from electrolysis of caustic potash (KOH); from Mod.L. potassa, Latinized form of E. potash + -ium.

potential
  توند   
tavand

Fr.: potentiel   

1) A latent ability that may or may not be developed; possibility.
2) Physics: The → work required to → move a unit positive → charge, unit magnetic pole, or an amount of → mass respectively from → infinity (i.e. a place infinitely distant from the causes of the field) to a designated point. Gravitational potential is always negative, but the electric or magnetic potentials may be positive or negative.
3) (adj.) Capable of being or becoming, as opposed to → actual.
See also:
chemical potential, → electric scalar potential, → electromagnetic potential, → equipotential surface, → excitation potential, → gravitational potential energy, → ionization potential, → kinetic potential, → magnetic vector potential, → potential barrier, → potential density, → potential difference, → potential energy, → potential energy curve, → potential field, → potential gradient, → potential well, → potentiality, → retarded potential, → scalar potential, → thermodynamic potential, → Yukawa potential.

From L.L. potentialis "potential," from L. potentia "power," potis "powerful, able, capable;" cognate with Av. paiti- "lord, husband;" Mod.Pers. -bad (sepah-bad "general, commander of an army"); Skt. páti- "master, husband;" Gk. posis "husband;" Lith. patis "husband."

Tavand, from tav- + -vand. The first component tav- is the stem of tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" variants tâv, tâb, (dialects) tew "power;" Mid.Pers. tuwan "power, might;" O.Pers. tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able," tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful;" Av. tauu- (tu-) "to be able, strong," tavah- "power," təviši- "strength" (Mod.Pers. tuš "power, ability"); Skt. tavi- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength;" Gk. taus, saos "healthy;" L. tumere "to be swollen;" PIE *teu- "to swell, be strong." The second component -vand a suffix of adjectives and agent nouns, → actual.
Note: Tavand used as both noun and adjective, such as honarmand (n.) and mard-e honarmand (adj.).

potential barrier
  ورغه‌ی ِ توند   
varqeye tavand

Fr.: barrière de potentiel   

Region in a field of force in which the potential is such that a particle, which is subject to the field, encounters opposition to its passage.

potential; → barrier.

potential density
  چگالی ِ توند   
cagâli-ye tavand

Fr.: densité potentielle   

Of a fluid parcel at pressure P, the density that it would acquire if adiabatically brought to a reference pressure.

potential; → density.

potential difference
  دگرسانی ِ توند   
degarsâni-ye tavand

Fr.: différence de potentiel   

Between two points, the work done in taking the unit test object from one point to the other. Potential is a scalar quantity.

potential; → difference.

potential energy
  کاروژ ِ توند   
kâruž-e tavand

Fr.: énergie potentielle   

Of a system, the work done in changing the system from some standard configuration to its present state. Thus, if a body of mass m is raised vertically through a height h, the work done, mgh, is the increase in potential energy.

potential; → energy.

potential energy curve
  خم ِ کاروژ ِ توند   
xam-e kâruž-e tavand

Fr.: courbe de l'energie potentielle   

A plot that displays the → potential energy of a moving body as a function of its position. It is explained by the → conservation of energy and the conversion of potential energy into → kinetic energy and vice versa.

potential; → energy; → curve.

potential field
  میدان ِ توند   
meydân-e tavand

Fr.: champ de potentiel   

A field that has a → potential. A continuous → vector fieldA in a domain D is a potential field in D if and only if its → work around every closed curve C contained in D is zero: ∫A.ds = 0. Examples include the → gravitational field and the → electrostatic field.

potential; → field.

potential gradient
  زینه‌ی ِ توند   
zine-ye tavand

Fr.: gradient de potentiel   

At a point, the rate of change of potential V, with distance x, measured in the direction in which the variation is a maximum. The intensity F of the field is proportional to the potential gradient, but is oppositely directed: F = -dV/dx.

potential; → gradient.

potential well
  چاه ِ توند   
câh-e tavand

Fr.: puit de potentiel   

Region in a → field of force in which the potential decreases abruptly, and in the surrounding region of which the potential is larger.

potential; → well.

potentiality
  توندی   
tavandi

Fr.: potentialité   

1) The state or quality of being potential. Something potential.
2) According to Aristotle, what has the possibility of having → form, in contrast to → actuality; the power to effect change.

potential + → -ity.

potentially
  توندانه   
tavandâné

Fr.: potentiellement   

With a possibility of becoming actual; possibly.

potential; → -ly.

potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA)
  سیارک ِ توندانه آپه‌ناک   
seyyârak-e tavandâné âpenâk

Fr.: astéroïde potentiellement dangereux   

An asteroid that could make a threatening close approach to the Earth. In technical terms a PHA is defined as having an → absolute magnitude of 22 or brighter and an → Earth Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) of less than 0.05 → astronomical unit or 7.5 million km.

potentially; → hazardous; → asteroid.

potentiometer
  توندسنج   
tavandsanj

Fr.: potentiomètre   

An instrument for measuring electrical quantities by balancing an unknown potential difference against a known potential difference.

From potenti(al), → potential + -o + → -meter.

power
  توان   
tavân (#)

Fr.: puissance, pouvoir   

1) Physics: The → rate of doing → work on transferring → energy, as expressed in ergs/sec, watts, etc. Same as → mechanical power.
2) Math.: An → exponent to which a given quantity is raised. The expression xn is therefore known as "x to the n-th power."

M.E. pouer(e), poer(e), from O.Fr. povoir, noun use of the infinitive in O.Fr., "to be able," from V.L. *potere, from L. potis "powerful, able, capable;" cognate with Av. paiti- "lord, husband;" Mod.Pers. -bad (sepah-bad "general, commander of an army"); Skt. pái- "master, husband;" Gk. posis "husband;" Lith. patis "husband."

Tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" Mid.Pers. tuwan "power, might," from O.Pers./Av. base tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able," Av. tavah- "power," təviši- "strength," Mod.Pers. tuš, tâb "power, ability," O.Pers. tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful," Skt. tu- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength."

power function
  کریای ِ توانی   
karyâ-ye tavâni

Fr.: fonction de puissance   

A function of the form f(x) = xn, where n is a → real number.

power; → function.

power law
  قانون ِ توانی   
qânun-e tavâni (#)

Fr.: loi de puissance   

A mathematical relationship between two quantities expressed by a → power function.

power; → law.

power series
  سری ِ توانی   
seri-ye tavâni (#)

Fr.: série de puissance   

A series in which the terms contain regularly increasing powers of a variable. In general, a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + anxn, where a0, a1, etc. are constants.

power; → series.

power spectral density
  چگالی ِ بینابی ِ توان   
cagâli-ye binâbi-ye tavân

Fr.: densité spectrale de puissance   

Same as → spectral density.

power; → spectral; → density.

power spectrum
  بیناب ِ توانی   
binâb-e tavâni (#)

Fr.: spectre de puissance   

The plot that gives the portion of a signal's power falling within given frequency bins. The most common way of generating a power spectrum is by using a discrete Fourier transform.

power; → spectrum.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che cho cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- cod coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou CP cre cri cro CSP cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec dee def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc doo dou dow Dru dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ Era est eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre ful fuz Gal gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gib glo gos gra gra gra gra Gre gri gui H I hal Ham har Haw hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig Hob hom Hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyp hyp ico if ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kee Kep kil Kis kry Lag lam lan Lar lat law lea lem lep Li lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec meg Mer Mer met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod MOL mon mor mov mul mur N66 Nap nat nea neg Ner neu New New nic nod non non non nor nov nuc nul num O-t obl obs obt och off Ohm on- opa Oph opt opt ora orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla Pla pla pla Plo poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Pru pul pul Pyt qua qua qua qua quo rad rad rad rad rad rad ram Ran rat re- rea rec rec red red ref ref reg Reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho rif Rin Rob Rom rot rot rul S D Sai san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky Slo sno sof sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swe syn syn tad Tau tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra tra tra tre tri Tro tru tur TW Typ U G ult unb und uni uni uns ura use val vap vec Vel Ven Ver Vie Vir vir vis vol W V war wav wav wea Wei Wez wid win WN3 Wol Wro Y d YOR zen zir > >>