An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
axial inclination
  درکیل ِ آسه   
darkil-e âsé

Fr.: inclinaison de l'axe   

The angle at which a planet's axis of rotation is tilted, with respect to that of the planet's orbit.

axial; → inclination.

axial precession
  پیشایان ِ آسه‌ای   
pišâyân-e âse-yi

Fr.: précession axiale   

1) A change in the orientation of the → rotation axis of a non-spherical, spinning body caused by → gravity. A rotating top will precess in a direction determined by the → torque exerted by its → weight. The precession → angular velocity is inversely proportional to the spin angular velocity, so that the precession is faster and more pronounced as the top slows down.
2) In particular, the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's rotation axis which traces out a conical path once every ~ 26,000 years. The cause of the Earth's precession is the → equatorial bulge of the Earth, brought about by the → centrifugal force of the → rotation, which has changed the Earth from a perfect sphere to a slightly flattened one, thicker across the equator. The attraction of the Moon and Sun on the bulge is the reason which makes the Earth precess.

axial; → precession.

axial symmetry
  همامونی ِ آسه‌ای   
hamâmuni-ye âse-yi

Fr.: symmétrie axiale   

A symmetry with respect to a line. A geometric configuration is said to have axial symmetry if it remains unchanged when rotated about a given line.

axial; → symmetry.

axial tilt
  گرای ِ آسه   
gerâ-ye âsé

Fr.: inclinaison de l'axe   

The angle between an object's → rotation axis and its → orbital axis. In other words, the angle between its → equatorial plane and → orbital plane. Same as → axial inclination and → obliquity, but not to be confounded with → orbital inclination.

axial; → tilt.

axiom
  بنداشت، ارز‌آغازه   
bondâšt (#), arzâqâzé (#)

Fr.: axiome   

In any system of mathematics or logic, a statement or proposition from which secondary statements or propositions are derived. The truth of an axiom is either taken for granted or assumed. In modern practice, axiom and → postulate have the same meaning.

M.Fr. axiome, from L. axioma, from Gk. axioma "authority," literally "something worthy," from axioun "to think worthy," from axios "worthy," from PIE adj. *ag-ty-o- "weighty," from base *ag- "to drive, draw, move."

Bondâšt, literally "taking as the base," from bon "root, origin, base" + dâšt "held," from dâštan "to have, to hold, to maintain, to consider."
Arzâqâzé, from arz "value" + âqâzé "beginning, principle," from âqâz "beginning."

axiom of constraints
  بنداشت ِ پاوندها   
bondâšt-e pâvandhâ

Fr.: axiome des contraintes   

An axiom in → statics, stating that any → constrained body can be treated as a → free body detached from its → constraints, provided the latter are represented by their → reactions.

axiom; → constraint.

axiomatic
  بنداشتی   
bondâšti

Fr.: axiomatique   

Of, relating to, or resembling an → axiom.

axiom; → -ic.

axiomatic system
  راژمان ِ بنداشتی   
râžmân-e bondâšti

Fr.: système axiomatique   

Any system of → logic which explicitly states → axioms from which → theorems can be → deduced.

axiomatic; → system.

axion
  اکسیون   
aksion (#)

Fr.: axion   

A hypothetical weakly-interacting → boson of small mass required by models of → particle physics in order to solve the strong CP problem and explain a number of observed astrophysical/cosmological phenomena, including → dark matter, and the dimming of → type Ia → supernovae (→ accelerating Universe). Photons traveling in the → intergalactic medium would in part turn into axions in the presence of magnetic fields. The transformed photons are not detected on Earth and therefore supernovae would appear fainter even if the Universe is not accelerating.

Axion, first coined by Frank Wilczek (2004 Nobel Prize in Physics) apparently after a brand of washing detergent! The reason seems to be the idea that the particle will iron out a wrinkle in the → standard model of fundamental particles and forces while solving the problem of the Universe's → missing mass.

axis
  آسه   
âsé (#)

Fr.: axe   

1) One of the principal lines through the center of a figure or a solid, especially, the line which divides the figure or solid symmetrically.
2) A fixed line along which distances are measured or to which position are referred.

L. axis "axle, pivot," akin to O.E. eax "axis, axle," Gk. axon "axle," Skt. aksa- "axle, axis, beam of a balance;" PIE base *aks- "axis."

Âsé, from Pers. dialects: Qâyeni asak "the shaft connecting the plough to the yoke," Lori esi "a pillar (used to put up a tribal tent)," variants hosi, hosin, Tabari âssen "the foot of a door on which it turns," cf. Skt. ISA- "pole or shafts of a carriage or plough," Av. aêša "the two shafts," Mod.Pers. xiš "plough(share)," Gk. oiax "handle of rudder, tiller, helm," PIE base *ei-, *oi- "pole, thill."

axis of rotation
  آسه‌ی ِ چرخش   
âse-ye carxeš

Fr.: axe de rotation   

Same as → rotation axis and → rotational axis.

axis; → rotation.

axisymmetric
  همامون ِ آسه‌ای، آسه-همامون   
hamâmun-e âse-yi, âse-hamâmun

Fr.: axisymétrique   

Having → axisymmetry.

axisymmetry
  همامونی ِ آسه‌ای، آسه-همامونی   
hamâmuni-ye âse-yi, âse-hamâmuni

Fr.: axisymétrie   

Same as → axial symmetry.

azimuth
  سوگان، سمت   
sugân, samt

Fr.: azimut   

The → angular distance from the → North point eastward to the intersection of the → horizon with the → vertical circle passing through the object. Azimuth is 0° for an object due north, 90° due east, 180° due south, and 270° due west. → Altitude and azimuth constitute the → horizon coordinate system.

From O.Fr. azimut, from Ar. as-sumut (السمت) "the directions, ways," pl. of as-samt "the direction, way."

Sugân, from su "direction" + -gân direction suffix.

azimuth circle
  پرهون ِ سوگان، دایره‌ی ِ ~   
parhun-e sugân, dâyere-ye ~

Fr.: cercle d'azimut   

One of great circles of the → celestial sphere which passes through the → zenith, → nadir, and the star, cutting the horizon at right angles. Same as → vertical circle.

azimuth; → circle.

azimuthal
  سوگانی   
sugâni

Fr.: azimutal   

Or, or pertaining to an → azimuth.

azimuth + → -al.

azimuthal angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ سوگانی   
zâviye-ye sugâni

Fr.: angle azimutal   

In → spherical coordinates, an angle measured from the x-axis in the xy-plane.

Azimuthal, adj. from azimuth; → angle.

azimuthal magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ سوگانی   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye sugâni

Fr.: champ magnétiquue azimutal   

In the → solar dynamo model, a magnetic field that points from east to west or vice-versa.

azimuthal; → magnetic; → field.

azimuthal projection
  فراشانش ِ سوگانی   
farâšâneš-e sugâni

Fr.: projection azimutale   

A map projection on which the → azimuths of all points are shown correctly with respect to the center. A plane tangent to one of the Earth's poles is the basis for polar azimuthal projection.

azimuthal; → projection.

azimuthal quantum number
  عدد ِ کو‌آنتومی ِ سوگانی   
adad-e kuântomi-ye sugâni

Fr.: nombre quantique azimutal   

In quantum mechanics, a quantum number that distinguishes the different shapes of the orbitals.

Azimuthal, adj. from → azimuth; → quantum number.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>