An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
string
  تار، ریسمان   
târ, rismân

Fr.: corde   

1) General: A thin cord, usually made of twisted fibers, used for fastening, hanging, or tying. Something that resembles string in form or texture.
2) Music: A cord stretched across a musical instrument and vibrated to produce sound.
3) Subatomic string; → string theory.
4) → cosmic string.

M.E. string, streng; O.E. streng "line, cord, thread;" Du. streng,Ger. Strang "rope, cord;" PIE base *strenk- "stiff, tight."

Târ "thread, warp, string" (related to tur "net, fishing net, snare," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), tân "thread, warp of a web," from tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch").
Rismân "thread, string, cord" variants rasan, ras, ris, razé, rajé, rijé, rešmé, Mid.Pers. rasan, cf. Skt. rajju- "rope, cord," L. restis "cord," Lith. resgis, rekstis "wicker basket," O.L.G. risch; PIE base *rezg- "to plait."

string theory
  نگره‌ی ِ ریسمان   
negare-ye rismân

Fr.: théorie des cordes   

The latest theory of fundamental physics in which the basic entity is a one-dimensional → brane rather than the "zero-dimensional" point of conventional elementary particle physics. The one-dimensional string-like objects exist in the normal four dimensions of → space-time plus additional dimensions, the total dimensions being ten, eleven, or twenty-six depending on the version of the theory. Particles are strings that vibrate in different ways to account for their various properties.

string; → theory.

strip
  ۱) نوار؛ ۲ا) لُختاندن، لُخت‌کردن، ۲ب) لُختیدن، لُخت‌شدن   
1) navâr; 2a) loxtândan, loxt kardan, 2b) loxtidan, loxt šodan

Fr.: 1) bande; 2a) désabiller, décaper, démonter, 2b) se désabiller   

1) A long, flat, narrow piece of something. → instability strip.
2a) To deprive of covering; to deprive of clothing; make bare or naked. → ram pressure stripping.
2b) To take off clothes.

1) M.E. probably from M.L.G. strippe "strap, thong," related to stripe.
2) M.E. strippe, O.E. *stryppan; cf. M.Du. stropen "to strip off, to ramble about plundering," O.H.G. stroufen "to strip off, plunder," Ger. streifen "strip off, to ramble, roam, rove."

1) Navâr "strip."
2) Loxtândan, acusative of loxtidan, loxt kardan "to strip, to deprive of," infinitive of loxt "naked, deprived of," variants rut, lut, rud "plucked, stripped of its feathers (a bird) or of its wool (a lamb);" cf. Kurd. we-rutin "to pluck, strop off;" Proto-Ir. *rauH "to pluck, pull out;" IE cognates Lith. liautis "to be cut off, mutilated;" O.H.G. , E. lye (Cheung 2007).

Stromgren sphere
  سپهر ِ استرومگرن، کره‌ی ِ ~   
sepehr-e Stömgren, kore-ye ~

Fr.: sphère de Strömgren   

A theoretical sphere of → ionized hydrogen created by energetic → ultravioletphotons of a hot, → massive star embedded in a uniform interstellar → molecular cloud and lying at the center of the sphere. → H II region.

Named after Bengt Strömgren (1908-1987), a Danish astrophysicist, who put forward the first and simplest version of the model in 1939; → sphere.

Stromgren system
  راژمان ِ استرومگرن   
râžmân-e Strömgren

Fr.: système de Strömgren   

A → photometric system, also called the → uvby system.

Stromgren sphere; → system.

strong
  سترگ، زورمند، نیرومند   
sotorg, zurmand, nirumand (#)

Fr.: fort, puissant   

Having an intense, powerful, or vivid effect.
strong anthropic principle, → strong arm spiral galaxy, → strong encounter, → strong force, → strong gravitational lensing, → strong interaction, → strong lensing.

O.E. strang "physically powerful, powerful in effect, forceful;" cf. O.N. strangr "strong," Du. streng "strict, rigorous," O.H.G. strang "strong, bold, hard," Ger. streng "strict, rigorous."

Sotorg "large, strong," Mid.Pers. sturg "fierce; gross, coarse," Av. stūra- "strong, large, rough," stāuuišta- "strongest, biggest," cf. Skt. sthūrá- "strong, big, massy, thick," Gk. stylos "column, pillar," M.L.G. stūr "big, strong, coarse."
Zurmand, from zur, → strength, + -mand possession suffix.
Nirumand, from niru, → force + -mand possession suffix.

strong anthropic principle
  پروز ِ انسان-هستی ِ سترگ   
parvaz-e ensân-hasti-ye sotorg

Fr.: principe anthropique fort   

A version of the → anthropic principle that claims that the → Universe must be suitable for the formation of → intelligent life at some point. Compared with the → weak anthropic principle, this version is very controversial. Its implications are highly speculative from a scientific viewpoint.

strong; → anthropic; → principle.

strong arm spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ با بازوی ِ سترگ   
kahkešân-e mârpic bâ bâzu-ye setorg

Fr.: galaxie spirale à forts bras   

A galaxy with prominent stellar → spiral arms and little star formation between stellar arms, such as M51.

strong; → arm; → spiral; → galaxy.

strong encounter
  رویارویی ِ سترگ   
ruyâruyi-ye sotorg

Fr.: rencontre proche   

In a star cluster, a → close encounter that strongly changes a star's velocity.

strong; → encounter.

strong force
  نیروی ِ سترگ   
niru-ye sotorg

Fr.: interaction forte   

The force responsible for holding quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles. It is the strongest of the four fundamental forces. Same as → strong interaction.

strong; → force.

strong gravitational lensing
  لنزش ِ گرانشی ِ سترگ   
lenzeš-e gerâneši-ye sotorg

Fr.: effet de lentille gravitationnelle forte   

A → gravitational lensing phenomenon in which the image distortion is strong enough to be readily recognized, such as in the case of the → Einstein cross or when giant luminous arcs show up in → galaxy clusters (e.g. Abell 2218). Opposite to → weak gravitational lensing.

strong; → gravitational; → lensing.

strong interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ سترگ   
andaržireš-e sotorg

Fr.: interaction forte   

The interaction between quarks that is transmitted by gluons. The characteristic range of the strong interaction is 10-13 cm, and the time scale over which it operates is on the order of 10-23 second. Also called → strong force.

strong; → interaction.

strong lensing
  لنزش ِ سترگ   
lenzeš-e sotorg

Fr.: effet de lentille fort   

A situation where the mass concentration in the central regions of → galaxy clusters exceeds the → critical density required for lensing, resulting in multiple images of background objects.

strong; → lensing.

strontium
  استرونسیوم   
estonsiom (#)

Fr.: strontium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Sr. Atomic number 38; atomic weight 87.62; melting point 769°C; boiling point 1,384°C; specific gravity 2.6 at 20°C. Strontium is a soft, silver-yellow metal with three allotropic crystalline forms. It is found in nature only in the combined state, as in strontianite. It is used in fireworks, flares, and tracer bullets. The radioactive isotope Strontium-87, the daughter of Rubidium-87, has a half-life of 48.8 x 109 years.

The name derives from Strontian "a town in Scotland." The mineral strontianite is found in mines in Strontian. The element was discovered by the Scottish chemist and physician Thomas Charles Hope in 1792 observing the brilliant red flame color of strontium. It was first isolated by the English chemist Humphry Davy in 1808.

structure
  ساختار   
sâxtâr (#)

Fr.: structure   

The arrangement of parts in an object or organism.

M.E., from L. structura "a fitting together, adjustment, building," from structus, p.p. of struere "to pile, build, assemble," related to strues "heap," from PIE *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out;" cf. Pers. gostar-, gostardan "to spread;" Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow, stripe."

Sâxtâr, from sâxt "made; make, construction, structure; style," past stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -âr verbal noun suffix.

structure formation
  دیسش ِ ساختار   
diseš-e sâxtâr

Fr.: formation des structures   

The study of the processes that gave rise to the apparition of matter concentrations, such as → superclusters of galaxies, → galaxy clusters, and galaxies, in a homogeneous → expanding Universe. Cosmic structures are believed to result from → density fluctuations that existed in the → early Universe before radiation and matter decoupled (→ decoupling era or → recombination era). Initial → quantum fluctuations in the → inflaton field were expanded by → inflation. Inflation amplified them up to scales that correspond to those of galaxy clusters and beyond. Generally, a model of structure formation includes three main ingredients: 1) background cosmology, 2) model for fluctuation generation, and 3) types of → dark matter.
See also:
bottom-up structure formation, → hierarchical structure formation, → Silk damping, → top-down structure formation.

structure; → formation.

study
  ۱) پرهانه؛ ۲) پرهاندن   
1) parhâné; 2) parhândan

Fr.: 1) étude; 2) étudier   

1a) Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or reflection.
1b) The cultivation of a particular branch of learning, science, or art.
1c) Something studied or to be studied.
1d) Research or a detailed examination and analysis of a subject, phenomenon, etc. A written account of such research, examination, or analysis.
2a) To apply oneself to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or practice.
2b) To think deeply, reflect, or consider.
2c) To take a course of study, as at a college (Dictionary.com).

M.E. studie, from O.Fr. estudie "care, skill, thought; study, school," from L. studium "study, application;" originally "eagerness," from studere "to press forward, be eager for, pursue," from PIE *(s)teu- "to push, stick, beat;" cf. Gk. typtein "to strike," typos "a blow, mold;" Skt. tup- "harm," tundate "pushes, stabs;" Gothic stautan "push."

Parhâné, from Proto-Ir. *pari-huan- "to read thoroughly, to read through," from *pari- "through, throughout; thoroughly" (O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over") + *huanH- "to call;" cf. Pers. xândan, xvandan "to read, to sing" (Av. xvan- "to sound;" Skt. svana- "sound," svan- "to sound," svanati "it sounds;" O.E. swinn "music, song"); cf. Kurd. xwendin "to study, read;" Lori hané "to read;" Karingâni hoyniyan, Baluci vonag, Awromâni wânây "to read;" Khotanese hâvn- "to speak."

Styx
  استیکس، استوکس   
Styx, Stux

Fr.: Styx   

The fifth confirmed → satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2012 using a set of the → Hubble Space Telescope. Also called Pluto V (P5). It orbits Pluto between → Charon and → Nix at a distance of about 42,000 km. Styx is estimated to have a diameter of between 10 and 30 km, and an → orbital period of 20.2 days.

Named for the Greek mythological river that separates the world of the living from the realm of the dead.

sub-
  زیر-، ایر-   
zir- (#), ir-

Fr.: sub-   

A prefix occurring originally in loanwords from L. but freely attached to elements of any origin and used with the meaning "under, below, beneath."

From L. preposition sub "under" (also "next to, up to, toward"), from PIE base *upo- "from below," hence "turning upward, upward, up, over, beyond;" cf. O.Pers. upā (prep.) "under, with;" Av. upā, upa (prep.; prevb) "toward, with, on, in" (upā.gam- "to arrive at," upāpa- "living in the water," upa.naxturušu "bordering on the night"); Mod.Pers. "with," from abâ; Skt. úpa (adv., prevb., prep.) "toward, with, under, on;" Gk. hypo "under;" Goth. iup, O.N., O.E. upp "up, upward."

Zir- "below, down;" Mid.Pers. azêr "below, under," êr "below, down; low, under," adar "low;" Av. aδara- (adj.), aδairi- (prep.) "below;" cf. Skt. ádhara- "lower;" L. infra (adv., prep.) "below, underneath, beneath," inferus "lower;" O.E. under "under, among"); PIE base *ndher.

sub-arcsecond
  زیر-ثانیه‌ای   
zir-sâniye-yi

Fr.:   

A measure of angle smaller than 1 arcsecond, usually until 0.1 arcsecond.

sub-; → arc second.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>