An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Washington Double Star Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ ستارگان ِ دوتایی ِ واشینگتن   
kâtâlog-e setâregân-e dotâyi-ye Washington

Fr.: Washington Double Star Catalogue   

A stellar catalog which is the world's principal database of astrometric → double star information. It is maintained by the United States Naval Observatory. The WDS Catalog contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of 142552 systems (as of Feb 27 2018).

Washington, referring to the location of the United States Naval Observatory in Northwest Washington, D.C; → double; → star; → catalog.

waste
  آخال   
âxâl (#)

Fr.: déchet   

Unwanted or unusable items, remains, or byproducts. → nuclear waste; → radioactive waste.

M.E., from O.Fr. wast, g(u)ast, from L. vastum, neuter of vastus "waste."

Âxâl "waste, rubbish," of unknown origin.

water
  آب   
âb (#)

Fr.: eau   

The normal oxide of hydrogen with formula H2O. Pure water's → melting point is 0°C and its → boiling point 100 °C at sea level. Water has a → maximum density at very nearly 4°C of (by definition) 1.0000 g cm-3. It then expands as its temperature drops to 0°C, the density being 0.9998 g cm-3 . On freezing, it expands still further, giving ice a density of 0.9168 g cm-3 at 0°C, whereas water has a density of 0.9998 g cm-3 at 4 °C. A → water molecule consists of one → oxygen (O) atom bonded to two → hydrogen (H) atoms. The → specific heat of water, 1 calorie per gram per 1 degree C (cal/g/°C), is higher than most other substances. Therefore, water both absorbs and releases heat more slowly than land. This causes land areas to heat more rapidly and to higher temperatures and also cool more rapidly and to lower temperatures, compared to oceans. The high heat capacity of water also explains why the temperatures of land near a body of water are more moderate. The high heat capacity of water keeps its temperature within a relatively narrow range, causing nearby coastal areas to also have a narrow daily and seasonal temperature range. See also → heavy water, → ortho-water, → para-water.

Water, from O.E. wæter (cognates: Du. water; O.H.G. wazzar; Ger. Wasser; Goth. wato); cf. Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water," cognate with Skt. udá- "water;" Khotanese ūtcā "water;" Hittite uātar; L. unda "wave;" O.C.S., Rus. voda; Lith. vanduo; from PIE base *wed- "water; wet."

Âb "water," variants iv, êw, âp; from Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O.Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook."

water clock
  پنگ   
pang (#)

Fr.: clepsydre   

An ancient form of clock, used by several civilizations, consisting of a water container with a small hole from which the water slowly dripped. Time was reckoned by the level of the water remaining in the container.

water; → clock

Pang "a copper bason with a small hole in the bottom, for water in which it is placed to flow through, used for measuring time" used in Iran.

water ice
  یخ ِ آب   
yax-e âb

Fr.: glace d'eau   

Water in the → solid state, produced by freezing → liquid water; frozen water. Ice forms at or below a temperature of 0°C. Ice is less dense than liquid water because it expands during the process of freezing. This is because the molecular arrangement taken by ice leads to an increase in volume and a decrease in density. → maximum density of water

water; → ice.

water maser
  میزر ِ آب   
meyzer-e âb

Fr.: maser H2O   

An interstellar → maser phenomenon in which water (H2O) molecules undergo the processes of → population inversion and → stimulated emission. H2O masers are detected toward star formation regions and the envelopes of evolved stars. The maser emission comes from regions that are typically quite small, not larger than the solar system. The main emission frequency is 22 GHz, which shows up in strong lines. There are, however, other H2O maser transitions at 380 GHz and 183 GHz, which are much weaker than the 22 GHz line. The former transitions are sporadically detected since they are strongly absorbed in the Earth's atmosphere, because of its high water vapor content.

water; → maser

water molecule
  مولکول ِ آب   
molekul-e âb (#)

Fr.: molécule d'eau   

The chemical combination of one → oxygen (O) atom bonded to two → hydrogen (H) atoms. The bonding between the oxygen atom and each hydrogen atom is known as → covalent bonds. The two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the oxygen atom at a 105° angle. This geometry of the water molecule causes it to have positively and negatively changed ends, known as → polarity. Water is referred to a polar or dipolar molecule. The large nucleus of the oxygen atom attracts the shared electrons causing this side of the water molecule to be negatively charged while the hydrogen side is positively charged. This polarity allows water to bond easily with adjacent water molecules.

water; → molecule.

water planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ آبی   
sayyâre-ye âbi

Fr.: planète océan   

Same as → ocean planet.

water; → planet.

water vapor
  بخار ِ آب   
boxâr-e âb (#)

Fr.: vapeur d'eau   

1) Water (H2O) in the gaseous state.
2) Meteo.: Atmospheric water in vapor form; one of the most important components of the → atmosphere.

water; → vapor.

waterspout
  تنوره‌ی ِ دریایی   
tanure-ye daryâyi (#)

Fr.: trombe marine   

A spinning column of rising humid air that occurs over a body of warm water. Waterspouts fall within the class of atmospheric phenomena known as convective vortices that includes → tornadoes, → dust devils, and → hurricanes. They can feature wind speeds over 200 kilometers per hour.

water + spout, from M.E. spouten akin to M.Du. spiten "to spout;" O.E. spiwan "to spew."

Tanure-ye daryâyi, from tanuré (kešidan) "turning and raising in the air," probably from tanidan "to turn, spin," → tension; daryâyi, → marine.

watt
  وات   
watt (#)

Fr.: watt   

A unit of power in the SI or MKS system of units, symbol W, equivalent to one joule per second. 1 W = 1 J s-1 = 1 kg m2 s-3 = 1 N m s-1 = 107 erg s-1.
Electricity: The current in amperes multiplied by the electrical potential in volts.

In honor of James Watt (1736-1819) the eminent Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer.

watt-hour
  وات-ساعت   
vât-sâ'at (#)

Fr.: watt-heure   

Unit of work or energy, equal to one watt for one hour, or 3.6 x 1010 ergs., or 3600 joules. The kilowatt-hour (kWh), i.e. 1,000 watts over the period of one hour, is the usual unit or measure of electricity supply or consumption. 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J.

watt; → hour.

wattle
  جیل   
jil (#)

Fr.: barbillon   

A fleshy lobe or appendage hanging down from the throat or chin of certain birds, as the domestic chicken or turkey (Dictionary.com).

Of uncertain origin.

Jil (in Nâini and Baxtiyâri) "wattle."

wattmeter
  وات‌سنج   
vâtsanj (#)

Fr.: wattmètre   

An instrument used for measuring the magnitude of the power in an electric circuit.

watt; → -meter.

wave
  موج   
mowj (#)

Fr.: onde   

1) General: A raised ridge-shaped formation moving across the surface of a liquid (as of the sea).
2) Physics: A disturbance advancing from point to point in a → medium or → space as in the → propagation of → sound or → light.
See also:
acoustic wave, → acoustic wave equation, → advanced wave, → Alfven wave, → ballistic wave, → blaze wavelength, → bow wave, → collapse of the wave function, → complex wave, → compressional wave, → cosmic microwave background anisotropy, → cosmic microwave background radiation, → decimetric wave, → density wave, → density-wave theory, → elastic wave, → electromagnetic wave, → electrostatic wave, → gravitational wave, → gravity wave, → half-wave plate, → heat wave, → incoherent wave, → Langmuir wave, → longitudinal wave, → Mach wave, → microwave, → microwave background radiation, → microwave radiation, → millimeter wave, → millimeter-wave astronomy, → modulated wave, → Moreton wave, → neutral wave, → P-wave, → periodic wave, → plane wave, → quarter-wave plate, → radio wave, → rarefaction wave, → retarded wave, → Rossby wave, → S-wave, → scalar wave, → seismic wave, → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, → shear wave, → shock wave, → sine wave, → sound wave, → square wave, → standing wave, → stationary wave, → submillimeter wave, → transverse wave, → wave equation, → wave function, → wave mechanics, → wave nature, → wave numbe, → wave optics, → wave packet, → wave plate, → wave theory of light, → wave vector, → wave-particle duality, → waveband, → waveform , → waveform analysis, → wavefront, → wavefront correction, → wavefront distortion, → wavefront sensor, → wavefront tilt, → waveguide, → wavelength, → wavelet, → wavelet theory, → wave train.

M.E. waw; O.E. wagian "to move to and fro," wafian "to wave with the hands" (cf. O.N. vafra "to hover about," M.H.G. waben "to wave, undulate").

Mowj, loan from Ar. mauj.

wave collapse
  رمبش ِ موج   
rombeš-e mowj

Fr.: effondremenr d'onde   

In the → Copenhagen Interpretation of → quantum mechanics, the change undergone by the → wave function of a particle when a measurement is performed on the particle. The wave function collapses to one that has a definite value for the quantity measured. If the → position of the matter wave is measured, it collapses to a localized → pulse. If → momentum is measured, it collapses to a wave with a definite momentum. Same as → collapse of the wave function.

wave; → collapse.

wave equation
  هموگش ِ موج   
hamugeš-e mowj

Fr.: équation d'onde   

The partial differential equation 2U / ∂2x + ∂2U / ∂2y + ∂2U / ∂2z = (1/c2) ∂2U / ∂2t or its counterparts in one or two dimensions or in other coordinates, the solution of which represents the propagation of displacementU as waves with velocity c.

wave; → equation.

wave function
  کریای ِ موج   
karyâ-ye mowj

Fr.: fonction d'onde   

In → quantum mechanics, the function of space and time that satisfies → Schrodinger equation. The square of the modulus of its amplitude at any point represents the probability of finding a particle there.

wave; → function.

wave mechanics
  مکانیک ِ موجی   
mekânik-e mowji (#)

Fr.: mécanique ondulatoire   

One of the forms of quantum mechanics, due to Louis de Broglie and extended by E. Schrödinger. It originated in the suggestion that light consists of corpuscles as well as of waves and the consequent suggestion that all elementary particles are associated with waves.

wave; → mechanics

wave nature
  زاستار ِ موجی   
zâstâr-e mowji

Fr.: nature ondulatoire   

A general term to describe → light involving the following phenomena: → reflection, → refraction, → interference, → diffraction, and → polarization. Compare → particle nature.

wave; → nature.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>