An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12937 Search : far
wind blanketing
  پتومندی ِ باد   
patumandi-ye bâd

Fr.: effet de couverture du vent   

A process whereby dense winds of very luminous O type stars modify the temperature and internal structure of the underlying photosphere by scattering back a considerable part of the coming photospheric radiation. Not to be confused with → line blanketing .

Thus called because the wind acts like a blanket and heats the photosphere * by reflecting its radiation; → wind.

wind clumping
  گوده‌داری ِ باد   
gudedâri-ye bâd

Fr.: grumelage de vent   

The inhomogeneous property of a → radiation-driven wind, or the physical mechanism accounting for the → clumped wind.

clumpy; → wind.

wind luminosity
  تابندگی ِ باد   
tâbandegi-ye bâd

Fr.: luminosité de vent   

The final kinetic energy of the → stellar wind expressed by: (1/2)Mdot.v2 = (1/2)(v/c)L For an O6 star, L ~ 3 x 105Lsun and v ~ 2000 km s-1, which give a wind luminosity of ~ 1 x 1037 erg s-1, about 1% of the → stellar luminosity. See also → photon tiring limit.

wind; → luminosity.

wind momentum
  جنباک ِ باد   
jonbâk-e bâd

Fr.: moment angulaire de vent   

The product of the → mass loss rate and → terminal velocity used in the → radiation-driven wind theory. See also → modified wind momentum.

wind; → momentum.

wind rose
  بادنقش   
bâdnaqš (#)

Fr.: rose des vents   

A diagram showing the relative frequency of winds blowing from each of the 8 or 16 main points of the compass, sometimes within specified speed ranges, at a given location over a considerable period.

Translation of Ger. Windrose "compass card," from Windwind + Rose "rose," → Rosette Nebula.

Bâdnaqš, from bâd, → wind, + naqš "painting, engraving, printing," → map.

wind vane
  بادنما   
bâdnemâ (#)

Fr.: girouette   

An object that is balanced on a rotating axis and indicates the direction of the wind. Also called a weather vane.

wind + vane "a blade, plate," O.E. fanafana "piece of cloth," O.H.G. fano, Ger. Fahne "flag, standard."

Bbâdnemâ "wind indicator," from bâd, → wind, + nemâ, from nemudan, → planetarium.

wind velocity
  تندای ِ باد   
tondâ-ye bâd

Fr.: vitesse de vent   

The speed at which the → stellar wind is forced away from the star. Wind velocities of → hot stars are directly measured from → P Cygni profiles, which indicate velocities from several hundred to several thousand km s-1. See also → escape velocity, → terminal velocity, → velocity law, → radiation-driven wind, → CAK model.

wind; → velocity.

winding problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ پیچش   
parâse-ye piceš

Fr.: problème d'enroulement   

The problem encountered in the explanation of the → spiral arms of galaxies if the material making up a spiral arm is static, that is remains in the arm. Since galaxies exhibit → differential rotation, stars near the center take less time to orbit the center than those farther from the center. The arm would, after a few → galactic rotations, become increasingly curved and wind around the → galaxy ever tighter until it ultimately disappears. This is inconsistent with observations.

window
  روزنه   
rowzané (#)

Fr.: fenêtre   

1) Anything likened to a window in appearance or function.
2) In particular, the wavelength region in the electromagnetic spectrum that is relatively unaffected by atmospheric absorption. → atmospheric windows; → infrared window; → optical window; → radio window.

Window literally "wind eye," from O.N. vindauga, from vindr, → wind, + auga, → eye.

Rowzané, from rowzan "window, aperture;" Mid.Pers. rocânak "window," rôšn "light; bright, luminous," from Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight," related to Mod.Pers. ruz "day," from Mid.Pers. rôc, O.Pers. raucah-; akin to Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining," roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness." The Persian words rowšan "bright, clear," foruq "light," and afruxtan "to light, kindle" also belong to this family, as well as the E. light, Ger. Licht, and Fr. lumière; forusorxinfrarouge.

window function
  کریای ِ روزنه   
karyâ-ye rowzané

Fr.: fonction fenêtre   

A function whose value is zero outside a given interval. Applications of window functions include signal filtering and spectral analysis. The various types of windw functions include: → rectangular window, cosine window, triangular window, Gaussian window, Hanning window, and so on.

window; → function.

wine
  می، باده، نبید   
mey (#), bâdé (#), nabid (#)

Fr.: vin   

The fermented juice of grapes, made in many varieties, such as red, white, sweet, dry, still, and sparkling, for use as a beverage, in cooking, in religious rites, etc., and usually having an alcoholic content of 14 percent or less (Dictionary.com).

M.E., O.E. win, cognate with O.H.G. win, Du. wijn, Ger. Wein, from L. vinum "wine," from PIE *woin-o-, related Gk. word oinos.

Mey, variant mol "wine;" Mid.Pers. mad, may "wine;" Av. maδu- "wine;" cf. Skt. madhu- "wine, sweet drink, sweet;" Gk. methy "wine;" O.C.S. medu; Lith. medus "honey;" O.Irish mid; Welsh medd; Breton mez "mead;" O.E. medu; E. mead "fermented honey drink;" Russ. medved "(honey-eater) bear."
Bâdé, from Mid.Pers. bâdag, from O.Pers. *bātu- "wine" (from bātu-gara- "cup, bowl"); cf. Khotanese Saka bātaa- "wine;" O.Pers. *batiaka- "cup, bowl" (cf. Pers. bâdiyé "bowl") loaned in Gk. batiaké "bowl, cup."
Nabid, "wine, date-wine," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *paH- "to drink;" cf. Av. paitīš- "drink" in vīspô.paitīš- "having all sorts of drinks;" pitu- "juice, food;" Wakhi puv-, pəv-, pit-; Sanglechi pöv-/pövδ- "to drink;" Skt. pā- "to drink;" Gk. pinein "to drink;" L. bibere "to drink," related to potare "to drink."

wing
  بال   
bâl (#)

Fr.: aile   

1) Either of the two limbs of a bird allowing her to fly. → Pegasus.
2) Either of the large flat structures in an aircraft's body that provide the main source of lift.
3) In spectroscopy, same as → line wing.

M.E. wenge from O.N. vængr "wing of a bird, aisle, etc." (cf. Dan., Swed. vinge "wing").

Bâl "wing," Mid.Pers. bâl, variant of par / parr "feather, " with the conversion of p to b and r to l; Av. parəna- "feather;" cf. Skt. parnam; O.H.G. farn "fern;" PIE pornom "feather."

Wing-Ford band
  باند ِ وینگ-فورد   
bând-e Wing-Ford

Fr.: bande de Wing-Ford   

A spectral feature at 9850-10200 Å appearing in the spectrum of some late-type → M dwarfs. It is attributed to iron hybrid (FeH), a typical signature of the atmospheres of the coolest stars.

First detected by R. F. Wing and W. K. Ford (1969, PASP 81, 527); → band.

winter
  زمستان   
zemestân (#)

Fr.: hiver   

The season beginning at the → winter solstice, about December 22 and lasting until the → vernal equinox, about March 21.

M.E., OE; cf. O.Fris., Du. winter, O.S., O.H.G. wintar, Ger. winter, Dan., Swed. vinter, Goth. wintrus "winter"),

Zemestân "winter," related to zam "cold," Mid.Pers. zam, zamistân "winter;" Av. zimô "winter;" cf. Skt. hima- "cold, frost;" Ossetic zymæg/zumæg "winter;" Gk. xeimon "winter;" L. hiems "winter;" Lith. ziema "winter;" PIE *gheim- "snow, winter."

winter solstice
  خوریستان ِ زمستانی   
xoristân-e zemestâni

Fr.: solstice d'hiver   

The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its lowest → declination of -23°26' (or -23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly away from the Sun, on 21 or 22 December. During the northern winter solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees south, known as the → tropic of Capricorn. The winter solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive winter solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The winter solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → summer solstice in the southern hemisphere.

winter; → solstice..

wire
  سیم   
sim (#)

Fr.: fil   

A slender flexible thread or rod of metal.

M.E., O.E. wir, cf. O.N. viravirka "filigree work," Swed. vira "to twist," O.H.G. wiara "fine gold work."

Sim "wire," initially "strand of silver," from sim "silver," from Mid.Pers. asêm "silver," from Gk. asemon "without mark, uncoined, shapeless, formless," from argurion asemon "uncoined money." For semantic similarity, see → silver.

wisdom
  خرد   
xerad (#)

Fr.: sagesse   

The quality or state of being → wise; knowledge of what is true or right coupled with just judgment as to action; sagacity, discernment, or insight (Dictionary.com). Wisdom is gained over the years through experience. It is the insight in knowing the probable outcome learned through experience. In contrast, → reason is using the → rational → reasoning to evaluate pros and cons in making a decision.

M.E.; O.E. wisdom, from wis "→ wise" + -dom. The first component is related to → vision and Pers. bin, didan "to see."

Xerad "understanding, judjement, intellect, wisdom;" Mid.Pers. xrad "reason, intellect, intelligence, wisdom, understanding;" O.Pers. xraθu- "wisdom;" Av. xratu- "intelligence, understanding, wisdom; will, purpose, council;" cf. Skt. krátu- "power, will-power;" Gk. kratos "power, strength."

wise
  خردمند   
xeradmand (#)

Fr.: sage   

Having the power of discerning and judging properly as to what is true or right; possessing discernment, judgment, or discretion (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. wis, wys, from O.E. wis ("wise"), cognate with Du. wijs, Ger. weise, Norw. and Swed. vis.

Xeradmand, from xerad, → wisdom, + -mand relatrion and possession suffix.

WN Wolf-Rayet
  وُلف-رایه‌ی ِ WN   
Wolf-Rayet-e WN

Fr.: Wolf-Rayet WN   

A → Wolf-Rayet star whose spectrum is dominated by emission lines of ionized nitrogen: N II 3995 Å, N III 4634-4661 Å, N III 5314 Å, N IV 3479-3484 Å, N IV 4058 Å, N V 4603 Å, N V 4619 Å, and N V 4933-4944 Å. This type is divided in sub-types WN2 to WN11.

W short for Wolf-Rayet star, N for → nitrogen.

WN/WC star
  ستاره‌ی ِ WN/WC   
setâre-ye WN/WC

Fr.: étoile WN/WC   

An object showing signatures of both → WN Wolf-Rayet stars and → WC Wolf-Rayet stars in the same spectrum, originating from individual stars rather than from WN + WC → binary systems. Such a WN/WC signature implies that the surface composition of the star is → nitrogen and → carbon enriched. This hybrid state results from a mixing process between He-burning → convective core and the overlying nitrogen enriched layers. According to model predictions, this situation corresponds to a short transition phase, lasting 103 to 104 years, during which a WN star evolves into a WC star. The WN/WC stars so far detected are all of early types.

WN Wolf-Rayet; → WC Wolf-Rayet.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>