An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>

Number of Results: 13003 Search : far
yellowcake
  کیک ِ زرد   
keyk-e zard

Fr.: yellow cake, "gâteau jaune"   

The final product obtained from the processing of uranium ores. It is a coarse powder, a mixture of uranium oxides, with about 80% U3O8. It has a pungent odor and melts at approximately 2878 °C. The yellowcake produced by most modern mills is actually brown or black, not yellow; the name comes from the color of the concentrates produced by early mining operations due to impurities from ammonium diuranate. Yellowcake must be converted into → uranium hexafluoride (UF6) before it can be enriched, the process that makes the sort of uranium used by nuclear power plants or bomb-makers (→ uranium enrichment). The uranium hexafluoride is heated to become a gas and loaded into cylinders. When it cools, it condenses into a solid.

yellow; cake, M.E., from O.Norse kaka "cake," from which also derive M.Du. koke, Du. koek, Ger. Kuchen.

Yerkes refractor
  شکست‌گر ِ یرکیز   
šekastgar-e Yerkes

Fr.: réfracteur de Yerkes   

The largest → refracting telescope and the last of the great refractors with a lens diameter of 102 cm (f/d = 19), completed in 1897. The lens was ground by American telescope builders Alvan Clark & Sons. Used mainly for both visual and photographic studies of double stars, it is typical of the long-tube refractors traditionally employed in such work.

After Yerkes Observatory; → refractor.

Yerkes system
  راژمان ِ یرکیز   
râžmân-e Yerkes

Fr.: système de Yerkes   

Same as → Morgan-Keenan classification.

After Yerkes Observatory, where the classification was developed; → system.

yield
  ۱) بازده؛ ۲) وادهی، واداد   
1) bâzdeh (#); 2) vâdehi, vâdâd

Fr.: 1) rendement; 2) limite d'élasticité   

1a) Chemistry: The quantity of product resulting from a chemical reaction or process, generally expressed as a percentage of the amount that is theoretically obtainable.
1b) Nuclear physics: 1) The number of → daughter atoms produced by the decay of one atom of a → parent radioactive element. For example, the → fission of one atom of 238U produces an average 0.0063 atoms of 136Xe, denoted: Y (136Xe)238 = 0.0063.
1c) A measure of the destructive energy of a nuclear explosion, expressed in kilotons of the amount of → T.N.T. that would produce the same destruction.
1d) → quantum yield.
2) → yield point.

M.E.; O.E. geldan, gieldan "to pay;" cf. O.S. geldan "to be worth," M.Du. ghelden, Du. gelden "to cost, be worth," O.H.G. geltan, Ger. gelten "to be worth."

1) Bâzdeh "yield, return," from bâz- "anew, again," → re- + deh present stem of dâdan "to give" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "togive, create;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").
2) Vâdehi, vâdâd, verbal noun from vâdâdan "to surrender," from vâ-, → de-, + dehi, dâd, from dâdan, as above.

yield point
  نقطه‌ی ِ وادهی، ~ واداد   
noqte-ye vâdahi, ~ vâdâd

Fr.: limite d'élasticite   

The point at which the → strain caused by a → stress on a material begins to increase without further increase in the stress. This point marks the end of → elastic deformation and the beginning of → plastic deformation. Same as → elastic limit.

yield; → point.

ylem
  ایلم   
ilem

Fr.: ylem   

The term first used by George Gamow (1904-1968) in a paper (Physical Review, 1948, coauthored by Alpher and Bethe) to describe the → primordial → substance from which the → chemical elements were formed. It fell into disuse.

M.E. ylem, from O.Fr. ilem "universal matter," from M.L. hyle "matter," from Gk. hule "matter, material, woods," used by Aristotle as perote hule "fundamental matter, raw material."

yocto- (y-)
  یوکتو-   
yokto-

Fr.: yocto-   

A metric prefix denoting 10-24. As of 2007, yocto- is the smallest SI prefix to be approved.

From L. octo, Gk. okto "eight," because it is equal to 1/10008.

yoke
  یوغ   
yuq (#)

Fr.: joug   

A device for joining together a pair of draft animals, especially oxen, usually consisting of a crosspiece with two bow-shaped pieces, each enclosing the head of an animal (dictionary.com).
yoke mounting.

M.E.; O.E. geoc "yoke," earlier geoht (cf. O.S. juk, Dan. aag, M.Du. joc, Du. juk, O.H.G. joh, Ger. joch, Goth. juk "yoke"); cognate with Pers. yuq, as below

Yuq "yoke," variants yuj, juh, jut, jot; Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke;" Av. yaog- "to yoke, put to; to join, unite;" cf. Skt. yugam "yoke;" Hittite yugan "yoke;" Gk. zygon "yoke," as above, zeugnyanai "to join, unite;" L. jungere "to join," O.C.S. igo, O.Welsh iou, Lith. jungas O.E. geoc, as above; PIE base *yeug- "to join."

yoke mounting
  برنشاند ِ یوغی   
barnešând-e yuqi

Fr.: monture anglaise à berceau   

A form of → English mounting in which the → telescope is suspended inside an inclined fork, supported at both ends, and forming a → right ascension axis parallel to the Earth's → axis. The telescope pivots about the → declination axis inside two parallel forks.

yoke; → mounting.

YORP effect
  اُسکر ِ YORP   
oskar-e YORP

Fr.: effet YORP   

A phenomenon in which the rotation rate of a small asteroid changes under sunlight absorption. Photons from the Sun are absorbed by a small body and reradiated in infrared. In the process, two forces influence the object: one from the impact of the photons, providing a tiny push, and the other as a recoil effect when the object emits the absorbed energy. In the YORP effect the body's shape has a more effective role than albedo in altering the spin rate. For small asteroids (< 10 km), YORP can cause measurable changes in rotation rate. The effect can even speed up the rotation leading to disintegration. → Yarkovsky effect.

Short for Ivan Osipovich Yarkovsky, John A. O'Keefe, V. V. Radzievskii, and Stephen J. Paddockk, who developed the explanation; → effect.

yotta- (Y-)
  یوتا-   
yotta-

Fr.: yotta-   

A metric prefix denoting 1024.

On the model of → yocto-.

young
  جوان   
javân

Fr.: jeune   

Being in the first or early stage of existence or evolution; e.g. → young stellar object.

M.E.; O.E. geong "youthful, young," from P.Gmc. *jungas (cf. O.S., O.Fris. jung, O.N. ungr, M.Du. jonc, Du. jong, O.H.G., Ger. jung, Goth. juggs), from PIE base *yeu- "vital force, youthful vigor;" cognate with Pers. javân, as below.

Javân "young;" Mid.Pers. juwân "young, youth;" Arm. yavanak (loaned from Mid.Pers.); Av. yuuan- "youth;" cf. Skt. yuvan- "young, youth;" L. juvenis "young man;" Lith. jaunas "young;" O.C.S. junu, Rus. junyj "young;" cognate with E. young, as above.

young stellar object (YSO)
  بر آخت ِ ستاره‌ای ِ جوان   
barâxt-e setâreyi-ye javân

Fr.: objet stellaire jeune   

Any star that has evolved past the → protostar stage, but has not yet arrived on the → main sequence. There is a variety of YSOs depending on their age, mass, and environment, including → Herbig stars, → T Tauri stars, and, in general, compact infrared sources embedded in molecular clouds.

young; → stellar; → object.

Young's experiment
  آزمایش ِ یانگ   
âzmâyeš-e Young (#)

Fr.: expérience de Young   

A method of producing → interference of light. Two beams of → coherent light are produced by passing light through a very small circular aperture in one screen, then through two small circular apertures very close together in a second screen. On a third screen, behind the second screen, there will be two overlapping sets of waves and, if the light is monochromatic, → interference fringes will appear on the third screen. The experiment can also be performed with a beam of electrons or atoms, showing similar interference patterns. Young's experiment provides an evidence of the → wave-particle duality, as explained by → quantum mechanics. Same as → double-slit experiment.

Named after the English scientist Thomas Young (1773-1829), who originally performed the experiment some time around 1801 in an attempt to resolve the question of whether light was composed of particles (the → corpuscular theory of light); or rather consisted of waves travelling through some → ether. The experiment proved the wave nature of light; → experiment.

Young's modulus
  پیمون ِ یانگ   
peymun-e Young

Fr.: module de Young   

A measure of elasticity of a material, defined as the ratio of tensile → stress to tensile → strain, which equals the ratio of compressive stress to compressive strain.

Named after Thomas Young, → Young's experiment.

youth paradox
  پارادخش ِ جوانی   
pârâdaxš-e javâni

Fr.: paradoxe de jeunesse   

Same as → paradox of youth.

ytterbium
  ایتربیوم   
iterbiom (#)

Fr.: ytterbium   

A soft, malleable, silver-white metallic chemical element; symbol Yb. Atomic number 70; atomic weight 173.04; melting point 819°C; boiling point about 1,194°C; specific gravity about 7.0. It has several radioactive isotopes.

From Ytterby, the name of the Swedish village where the mineral ytterbite (the source of ytterbium) was originally found. It was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean-Charles Galissard de Marignac in 1878.

yttrium
  ایتریوم   
itriom (#)

Fr.: yttrium   

A highly crystalline iron-gray metallic chemical element; symbol Y. Atomic number 39; atomic weight 88.9059; melting point about 1,522°C; boiling point 3,338°C; specific gravity about 4.45. It has several radioactive isotopes.

From ytterbite, → ytterbium, which turnd out to be containing two different elements.

Yukawa potential
  توند ِ یوکاوا   
tavand-e Yukawa

Fr.: potentiel de Yukawa   

The potential function that is associated with the strong, short-ranged force resulting from the exchange of massive particles between two → nucleons in the same atomic nucleus. The potential has the form of V(r) = C. (1/r) exp (-K.r), where r is the distance between the nucleons and C and K are constants, giving measures of the strength and range of the force respectively.

In honor of the Japanese physicist Hideki Yukawa (1907-1981), winner of the 1949 Nobel Prize in Physics; → potential.

Z boson
  بوسون ِ Z   
boson-e Z

Fr.: boson Z   

An electrically neutral subatomic particle that along with → W boson mediates the → weak nuclear force. Like the photon, the Z boson is its own antiparticle.

boson.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>