An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 energy generation rate   نرخ ِ آزانش ِ کاروژ   nerx-e âzâneš-e kâružFr.: taux de génération d'énergie   Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the energy produced per unit mass per unit time, usually denoted ε (erg g-1s-1). The general form of the energy generation equation is: ε = ε0ρλTν, where ε0, ρ, and λ are constants over some efficiently restricted range of → temperature T, → density ρ, and → chemical composition. The temperature exponent ν is about 4, 15, and 40 for → proton-proton chain, → CNO cycle, and → triple alpha process, respectively.→ energy; → generation; → rate. energy level   تراز ِ کاروژ   tarâz-e kâružFr.: niveau d'énergie   Any of the several discrete states of energy which a particle, atom, or molecule can adopt under conditions where the possible values are restricted by quantum mechanical laws.→ energy; → level. energy spectrum   بیناب ِ کاروژ   binâb-e kâružFr.: spectre d'énergie   Of cosmic rays, the plot representing the number of particles as a function of their energy.→ energy; → spectrum. energy state   حالت ِ کاروژ   hâlat-e kâružFr.: état d'énergie   Same as → energy level.→ energy; → state. energy transfer   تراوژ ِ کاروژ   tarâvaž-e kâružFr.: transfert d'énergie   The → conversion of one → form of energy into another, or the movement of energy from one place or system to another.→ energy; → transfer. energy-momentum tensor   تانسور ِ کاروژ-جنباک   tânsor-e kâruž-jonbâkFr.: tenseur énergie-quantité de mouvement   A tensor (Tμν) related to the → Einstein tensor through → Einstein's field equations. The energy-momentum tensor depends upon the distribution of the → energy and → matter in the space.→ energy; → momentum; → tensor. engine   موتور   motor (#)Fr.: moteur   1) Any machine that converts energy, especially heat energy, into mechanical power or motion. 2) The part of a processor or software program that determines how the program manages and manipulates data. The term is most often used in relation to a specific task.M.E. engin, from O.Fr. engin "skill, cleverness; war machine," from L. ingenium "inborn qualities, talent," from → in- "in" + gen-, root of gignere "to beget, produce;" cognate with Pers. zâdan "to bring forth, give birth;" → generate.Motor, loanword from Fr. moteur, from L. motor "mover," from movere "to move." engineer   مهندس   mohandes (#)Fr.: ingénieur   A person who designs, constructs, or works with engines or machines.M.E. engin(e)our, from O.Fr. engigneor, from L.L. ingeniare, → engine.Mohandes, from Ar. muhandis "measurer," from Pers. andâzé, → measure. engineering   مهندسی   mohandesi (#)Fr.: ingénierie   The action, work, or profession of an engineer.→ engineer + → -ing. English mounting   برنشاند ِ انگلیسی   barnešând-e englisiFr.: monture anglaise   A method of mounting a telescope in which the polar axis is supported at each end by two piers. The great defect of this type of mounting is its inability to observe the pole.→ mounting. enhance   بلندیدن   bolandidanFr.: rehausser, accroître   To raise to a higher degree; intensify; magnify (Dictionary.com).M.E. enhauncen, from Anglo-Fr. enhauncer, from O.Fr. enhaucier "make higher, make greater; raise in esteem," from V.L. *inaltiare, from L.L. inaltare "raise, exalt," from altare "make high," from altus "high."Bolandidan, from boland "high," related to bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz, "height, magnitude," → magnitude. enhancement   بلندش   bolandešFr.: rehaussement, accroissement   An increase or improvement in value, extent, or quality.Verbal noun of → enhance. enigma   چاچه   câcéFr.: énigme   A puzzling or inexplicable occurrence or situation. See also: → problem, → puzzle.From L. aenigma "riddle," from Gk. ainigma "a dark saying, riddle," from ainissesthai "speak obscurely, speak in riddles," from ainos "tale, story; saying, proverb;" of unknown origin.Câceh, from Baluci (Zâhedân) câcâk "riddle, puzzle;" cf. (Kermânšâhi) câvca "riddle, puzzle" (Fin-e Bandar-Abbâs) cencen "riddle;" maybe related to Choresmian c'tyk "riddle," from Proto-Ir. *caš- "to teach, to show;" Av. *caš- "to teach, to show" (Cheung 2007). enigmatic   چاچه‌ناک   câcenâkFr.: énigmatique   Resembling an enigma, or a puzzling occurrence, situation, statement, person, etc.; perplexing; mysterious (Dictionary.com).→ enigma; → -ic.Cušenâk, from cušé, → enigma, + -nâk adj. suffix. Enlightenment   عصر ِ روشنگری   asr-e rowšangari (#)Fr.: Siècle des Lumières   An intellectual movement in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries celebrating human reason and scientific thought as the instruments of progress and subjecting conventional ways of thinking to rigorous critique. The Enlightenment culminated with the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and the Encyclopédistes, the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), and the political ideals of the French and American Revolutions, while the precursor in science and philosophy included Francis Bacon (1561-1626), René Descartes (1596-1650), Isaac Newton (1643-1727), John Locke (1632-1704), and Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679).From enlighten, from en- + → light + -en + → -ment.Asr, → age; rowšangari, noun from rowšangar "enlightener," from rowšan "light, bright, luminous, splendid," cognate with L. lux, → bright, + -gar a suffix of agent nouns, → -or. enrich   پرداریدن، پردار کردن   pordâridan, pordâr kardanFr.: enrichir   To increase the → concentration or → abundance of a specified → component or → isotope in a material.From en- a prefix forming verbs with a particular sense + → rich.Pordâridan, pordâr kardan, infinitives from pordâr, → rich. enriched   پرداریده   pordâridéFr.: enrichi   Supplied with abundance of something. → enriched gas, → enriched uranium.Past participle of → enrich. enriched gas   گاز ِ پرداریده   gâz-e pordâridéFr.: gaz enrichi   A gas, usually → interstellar, in which the → abundance of particular chemical or atomic species is higher than the expected values.→ enriched; → gas. enriched uranium   اورانیوم ِ پرداریده   urânium-e pordâridéFr.: uranium enrichi   Uranium in which the → proportion of the → isotope U-235 has been increased (above the 0.7% value in natural uranium).→ enriched; → uranium. enrichment   پردارش   pordârešFr.: enrichissement   1) A process that changes the → isotopic ratio in a material. For example, for uranium the ratio of U-235 to U-238 may be increased by gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride. 2) → chemical enrichment.Verbal noun of → enrich.