An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12929 Search : far
galaxy main sequence
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست ِ کهکشانها   
rešte-ye farist-e kahkešânhâ

Fr.: séquence principale des galaxies   

A scaling relation between the → star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies and the total stellar mass (M*) of the galaxies. This relation, colloquially called the "galaxy main sequence," extends over several orders of magnitudes in M* and out to → high redshifts, with a modest scatter of ~ 0.3 dex which includes both intrinsic scatter and measurement uncertainties. The existence of such tight scatter at all observed epochs suggests that most galaxies assembled their stellar mass fairly steadily rather than predominantly in → starburst episodes, implying that → mergers have a sub-dominant contribution to the global star formation history (Wuyts et al., 2011 ApJ 742, 96).

galaxy; → main; → sequence.

gale
  تندباد   
tondbâd (#)

Fr.: vent violent   

An unusually strong wind.

Gale, from gaile "wind," origin uncertain, perhaps from O.N. gol "breeze," or O.Dan. gal "bad, furious."

Tondbâb "gale," from tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe," Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through," from per- + tundere, as explained); PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat" + bâd, → wind.

Galilean Moons
  ماه‌های ِ گالیله‌ای   
mâhhâ-ye Gâlile-yi (#)

Fr.: lunes galiléennes   

Same as → Galilean satellites.

Galilean, of or pertaining to Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Italian physicist and astronomer; → moon

Galilean relativity
  بازانیگی ِ گالیله‌ای   
bâzânigi-ye Gâlile-yi

Fr.: relativité galiléenne   

The principle according to which the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all frames of reference moving with constant velocity with respect to one another (→ inertial reference frames). Same as → Galilean invariance and → Newtonian relativity.
See also: → Galilean transformation, → Einsteinian relativity.

After Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the Italian physicist and astronomer, who first described this principle in 1632; → relativity.

Galilean satellites
  بنده‌وارها‌ی ِ گالیله‌ای   
bandevârhâ-ye Gâlile-yi

Fr.: satellites galiléens   

The four largest and brightest satellites of → Jupiter, that is: → Io (Jupiter I), → Europa, → Ganymede, and → Callisto.

Galileo, who had discovered them, called them Sidera Medicæa "Medicean Stars" in honor of the Medici family. → Galilean Moons; → satellite.

Galilean transformation
  ترادیس ِ گالیله‌ای   
tarâdis-e Gâlile-yi (#)

Fr.: transformation galiléenne   

The method of relating a measurement in one → reference frame to another moving with a constant velocity with respect to the first within the → Newtonian mechanics. The Galilean transformation between the coordinate systems (x,y,z,t) and (x',y',z',t') is expressed by the relations: x' = x - vt, y' = y, z' = z. Galilean transformations break down at high velocities and for electromagnetic phenomena and is superseded by the → Lorentz transformations.

Galilean, of or pertaining to Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Italian physicist and astronomer; → transformation.

Galileo spacecraft
  فضاناو ِ گالیله   
fazânâv-e Galileo

Fr.: sonde Galileo   

A space mission whose main goal was to explore → Jupiter and its moons and rings. The spacecraft was launched on October 19, 1989, arrived at Jupiter in December 1995. It disappeared on September 21, 2003, after eight years orbiting Jupiter, when mission controllers crashed it into → Jupiter's atmosphere. On December 7, 1995, Galileo's probe dived into Jupiter's atmosphere, and measured atmospheric pressure, density, and composition, and explored the planet's → radiation belts. Galileo had two parts: an orbiter and a descent probe that parachuted into Jupiter's atmosphere. The orbiter sent back hundreds of pictures of the four large → Galilean satellites of Jupiter (→ Io, → Europa, → Ganymede, and → Callisto). It made many discoveries during its eight years looping around Jupiter. It found evidence for layers of salt water below the surface on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, and measured high levels of volcanic activity on Io. When → Shoemaker-Levy slammed into Jupiter in 1994, Galileo had the only direct view of the → comet striking Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo determined that → Jupiter's rings are formed from dust hurled up by → meteorite impacts on planet's inner moons. Measurements by the orbiter's → magnetometer revealed that Io, Europa, and Ganymede have metallic cores, while Callisto does not. Also, Galileo discovered that Ganymede possesses its own → magnetic field; it is the first moon known to do so. The orbiter also found that the Galilean satellites all have thin atmospheres. During it's trip from Earth to Jupiter, Galileo passed by and studied two asteroids: → Gaspra in 1991 and → Ida in 1993, around which it discovered → Dactyl, the first moon orbiting an asteroid (windows2universe.org).

Galileo; → mission.

Galileo's law of falling bodies
  قانون ِ گالیله درباره‌ی ِ افت ِ جسم‌ها   
qânun-e Gâlilé darbâre-ye oft-e jesmhâ

Fr.: loi galiléenne de la chute des corps   

In the absence of air resistance, any two bodies that are dropped from rest at the same moment will reach the ground at the same time regardless of their mass.

Galileo (1564-1642) was the first to determine, at the start of the seventeenth century, the law of constant acceleration of free-falling bodies. → law; → fall; → body.

galvanic cell
  یاخته‌ی ِ گالوانی   
yâxte-ye gâlvâni

Fr.: cellule galvanique   

An electrolytic cell capable of producing electric energy by electrochemical reaction.

galvanism; → cell.

galvanic couple
  جفت ِ گالوانی   
joft-e gâlvâni

Fr.: couple galvanique   

A pair of dissimilar conductors, commonly metals, in electrical contact.

galvanism; → couple.

galvanic current
  جریان ِ گالوانی   
jarayân-e gâlvâni

Fr.: courant galvanique   

The direct electric current that flows between metals or conductive nonmetals in a → galvanic couple.

galvanism; → current.

galvanism
  گالوانیسم   
gâlvânism

Fr.: galvanisme   

1) The production of electricity from a chemical reaction.
2) The therapeutic application of electricity to the human body.

From Fr. galvanisme, after Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), the Italian physiologist, who demonstrated (1790) muscular action due to contact with dissimilar metals.

galvanization
  گالوانش   
gâlvâneš

Fr.: galvanisation   

The coating of steel or iron with → zinc, either by immersion in a bath of molten zinc or by electrolytic deposition from a solution of zinc sulfate, to give protection against corrosion.

Verbal noun of → galvanize.

galvanize
  گالوانیدن   
gâlvânidan

Fr.: galvaniser   

1) To coat a metal with → zinc by dipping into molten zinc or by electrolytic deposition.
2) To stimulate by application of an electric current.

From Fr. galvaniser, from galvanisme, → galvanism.

Gâlvânidan, from Gâlvâni, → galvanism, + -idan, → -ize.

galvano-
  گالوانو-   
gâlvâno-

Fr.: galvano-   

A prefix denoting galvanic or galvanism in compound words, such as → galvanometer, → galvanoplasty.

Galvano-, from → galvanism.

galvanometer
  گالوانوسنج   
gâlvânosanj

Fr.: galvanomètre   

An instrument for measuring or detecting small → direct currents, usually by the mechanical reaction between the magnetic field of the current and that of a magnet.

galvano- + → -meter.

galvanoplasty
  گالوانوپوشی   
gâlvânopuši

Fr.: galvanoplastie   

A process used for covering an object with a thin layer of metal by electrochemical means.

galvano- + -plasty a suffix meaning "molding, formation, surgical repair, plastic surgery," from Gk. -plastia, from plastos "molded, formed," from plassein "to mold."

Gâlvânopuši, from gâlvâno-, → galvano-, + puši "covering, coating," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").

game
  بازی   
bâzi (#)

Fr.: jeu   

1) An amusement or pastime.
2) The material or equipment used in playing certain games.
3) A competitive activity involving skill, chance, or endurance on the part of two or more persons who play according to a set of rules, usually for their own amusement or for that of spectators (Dictionary.com).

M.E. gamen. O.E. gaman "game, joy, fun, amusement;" cf. O.Fris. game "joy, glee," O.N. gaman, O.H.G. gaman "sport, merriment," D. gamen, Sw. gamman.

Bâzi, from Mid.Pers. wâzig "game, play," related to bâzidan "to play," bâxtan/bâz- "to loose (in game);" Proto-Ir. *uāz- "to play, contend;" cf. Skt. vāja- "contest, war, gain, reward" (Cheung 2007).

gamma
  گاما   
gâmmâ

Fr.: gamma   

1) The third letter of the Greek alphabet (γ, Γ).
2) Symbol used to denote the ratio of the principal specific heats CP/CV of a gas, where CP is the specific heat at constant pressure and CV that measured at constant volume.
3) Unit of magnetic field intensity, equal to 10-5 gauss.
4) The distance of the Moon's shadow axis from Earth's center in units of equatorial Earth radii. It is defined at the instant of → greatest eclipse when its absolute value is at a minimum (F. Espenak, NASA).

The third letter of the Gk. alphabet, from Gk. gamma, from Phoenician gimel.

Gamma Cephei
  گاما کفءوس   
gâmâ Kefeus

Fr.: γ Cephei   

A bright, third → magnitude (3.22) → giant star of → spectral type K1, also called → Errai, HR 8974, HIP 116727, and HD 222404. γCephei has a → surface temperature of 4920 K a mass of 1.40 Msun, a → luminosity 10.6 solar, and a radius 4.8 solar. Its distance is estimated to be 45 → light-years. γ Cephei will become the → Pole Star in about 2,000 years. γ Cephei has a low mass → companion (B), a main → main sequence star of spectral type M4 V with a mass of 0.4 Msun. It orbits the → primary star every 67.5 years. An → extrasolar planet. (γ Cephe b) has been discovered orbiting the main star.

Gamma, as in → Bayer designation; → Cepheus.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste Ste sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur swo syn sys tak Tay Tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro Tru tur twi Typ UBV ult unb uni uni uni up ura uti val var vec Vel ver ver vig vir vis VLT vol wad was wav wav wea wei Whe Wie win WN5 Wol X-r yea You zer zod > >>