An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
shallow angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ نژل   
zâviye-ye nažal

Fr.: angle faible   

Low angle, → grazing incidence.

shallow; → angle.

shank
  ساق، پاچه   
sâq (#), pâcé (#)

Fr.: jambe, jarret   

The part of the → leg between the → knee and the → ankle in humans.

O.E. sceanca "leg, shank, shinbone;" cf. Ger. schenkel "shank, leg," Dan., Swed. skank "leg;" maybe somehow related to Pers. leng, → leg.

Sâq "the leg from the ankle to the knee; the stem of a tree," maybe a variant of šâx "a branch, bough; a horn," or loan from Ar.

Shannon entropy
  درگاشت ِ شانون   
dargâšt-e Shannon

Fr.: entropie de Shannon   

information entropy.

Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001), an American mathematician and pioneer of → information theory; → entropy.

Shannon's sampling theorem
  فربین ِ نمونان‌گیری ِ شانون   
farbin-e nemunân-giri-ye Shannon

Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage de Shannon   

Same as → sampling theorem.

Shannon entropy; → sampling; → theorem.

Shapiro time delay
  درنگ ِ شپیرو   
derang-e Shapiro

Fr.: effet Shapiro   

A → general relativity effect whereby an → electromagnetic signal passing near a massive object takes, due to the curved → space-time, a slightly longer time to travel to a target than it would if the mass of the object were not present. The Shapiro time delay is one of the four classic solar system tests of general relativity. Radar reflections from → Mercury and → Mars are consistent with general relativity to an accuracy of about 5%. The Shapiro time delay is a significant contributor in → gravitational lens systems.

Irwin I. Shapiro, an American astrophysicist; → time; → delay.

Shapley concentration
  دبزش ِ شپلی   
dabzeš-e Shapley

Fr.: concentration de Shapley   

Same as the → Shapley supercluster.

Shapley's wing; → concentration

Shapley supercluster
  ابرخوشه‌ی ِ شپلی   
abarxuše-ye Shapley

Fr.: superamas de Shapley   

The richest → supercluster of galaxies in the nearby → Universe at a → redshift going from z ~0.03 to z ~0.05 (680 million → light-years), and extending over several square degrees on the plane of the sky. It lies behind the → Centaurus supercluster. Also called the Shapley concentration, it is made up of 25 → galaxy clusters with a total mass of about 1016solar masses. At the core of the Shapley supercluster is a remarkable complex formed by several rich clusters of galaxies from the → Abell catalog; the central and most massive of them is A3558.

Shapley's wing; → supercluster

Shapley's wing
  بال ِ شپلی   
Bâl-e Shapley

Fr.: Bras de Shapley   

A large cloud of faint stars extending eastward from the → Small Magellanic Cloud to the → Large Magellanic Cloud. The wing is in fact the tail of a much larger → neutral hydrogen structure linking the SMC to the LMC. Models and observations suggest that the structure known as the → Magellanic Stream results from the Clouds' interaction with each other and the Milky Way. Several works support the finding that the SMC wing is pointing toward the LMC, and is therefore closer to us than the SMC bar.

Named after the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972), who discovered this structure (1940, Harvard Bull., 914, 8); → wing.

Shapley-Ames Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ شیپلی-ایمز   
kâtâlog-e Shapely-Ames

Fr.: catalogue de Shapely-Ames   

A catalog of 1,249 galaxies, brighter than the 13th magnitude, published in 1932. A revised version was published by A.R. Sandage and G. A. Tammann in 1981.

By the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) and the American woman astronomer Adelaide Ames (1900-1932), who died in a drowning accident; → catalog.

Sharafeddin's staff
  چوبدست ِ شرف‌الدین   
cubdast-e sharafeddin

Fr.: bâton de Sharafeddin   

linear astrolabe.

Named after the Iranian mathematician and astronomer Sharafeddin Tusi (c1135-1213), who invented the instrument. Not to be confused with Nasireddin Tusi (1201-1274), → Nasireddin couple; → staff.

share
  ۱) بش؛ ۲) بشیدن   
1) baš; 2) bašidan

Fr.: 1) part; 2) partager   

1a) The full or proper portion or part allotted or belonging to or contributed or owed by an individual or group.
1b) One of the equal fractional parts into which the capital stock of a joint-stock company or a corporation is divided.
2a) To divide and distribute in shares; apportion.
2b) To use, participate in, enjoy, receive, etc., jointly (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. scearu "a cutting, shearing; a part or division," related to sceran "to cut;" O.H.G. scara "troop, share of forced labor," Ger. Schar "troop, band," properly "a part of an army," O.N. skör "rim;" from PIE root *(s)ker- "to cut."

Bâš, from Kurd. (Sorani) baš "share, part;" variant of baxš "share, portion;" baxšidan "to divide," → division; bâž "tribute, toll, impost," → distribute.

sharp
  ۱) تیز؛ ۲) تیگ   
1) tiz; 2) tig

Fr.: 1) tranchant, pointu; 2) net   

1) Having a thin cutting edge or a fine point.
2) Of an image, clearly defined; distinct. → sharp image.

M.E.; O.E. scearp "cutting, keen, sharp;" cf. Du. scherp, Ger. scharf "sharp;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."

Tiz "sharp," variants tež, tej, tij, tiq, tik, tig; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp;" O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians);" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear;" cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument;" L. in-stigare "to goad;" O.H.G. stehhan; Ger. stechen "to stab, prick;" Du. stecken; O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon;" E. stick.

sharp image
  تصویر ِ تیگ   
tasvir-e tig

Fr.: image nette   

An image with clear and distinct details. Opposite of → blurred image.

sharp; → image.

sharpen
  ۱) تیز کردن؛ ۲) تیگیدن   
1) tiz kardan; 2) tigidan

Fr.: 1) aiguiser; 2) rendre plus net   

1) To make sharp or sharper.
2) To increase the spatial resolution or the clearness of an image; same as → deblur; → deconvolve.

Verbal form of → sharp.

Tigidan "to sharpen," verbal form of tigsharp.

Sharpless catalogue
  کاتالوگ ِ شارپلس   
kâtâlog-e Sharpless

Fr.: catalogue de Sharpless   

A list of 313 individual → H II regions in the → northern → Milky Way (north of declination -27°). It includes several → planetary nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → reflection nebulae. The first edition (Sh-1) was published in 1953 with 142 objects and second and final version (Sh-2) was published in 1959. The catalog categorizes the H II regions in terms of several parameters, such as diameter, form (circular, elliptical, irregular), structure (amorphous/filamentary), brightness, and number of associated stars, which are further discussed in terms of their spectral classes.

Stewart Sharpless (1959) A Catalogue of H II Regions, ApJ Suppl. 4, 257; → catalog.

Shaula (Lambda Scorpii)
  شوله   
Shulé (#)

Fr.: Shaula, λ Scorpii   

The second brightest star in the constellation → Scorpius, lying at a distance of 570 → light-years. With → Lesath (Upsilon Scorpii) both stars make up the Scorpion's stinger. Shaula is a → multiple star with three visible → components. The first one, Lambda Scorpii A, is classified as a B2 IV → subgiant. The 15th magnitude Lambda Scorpii B has a separation of 42 arcseconds from component A, while the 12th magnitude Lambda Scorpii C is 95 arcseconds from A. It is not known whether or not these components are physically associated with component A. The component A is actually a → triple system consisting of two → B-type stars and a → pre-main sequence star.

Shaula, from Ar. ash-shaulah (الشولاء) the "raised tail" of Scorpion.

SHB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ SHB   
setâre-ye SHB

Fr.: étoile SHB   

Same as → supra-horizontal branch star.

supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

shear
  ۱) کرن؛ ۲) کرنیدن   
1) karn; 2) karnidan

Fr.: 1) cisaillement; 2) cisailler   

1) (n.) General: A scissors of large size.
Physics: A → stress applied to a body in the plane of its faces or perpendicular to its axis. As a consequence, parallel planes in the body remain parallel, but are displaced in a direction parallel to themselves. See also → strain.
2) (v.) General: To cut hair, fleece, or foliage from the surface of something using a sharp tool.
Physics: To cause something to deform or break by applying forces acting parallel to the plane.

M.E. sheren, O.E. sceran, scieran; cf. O.H.G. scrinden "to split;", Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear;" from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack;" cf. Pers. kârd "knife;" Av. kart- "to cut;" Skt. krntáti "cuts;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate."

1) Karn, from Laki caré, Farâhâni carra, Tabari carci "a scissors for cutting sheep wool," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife; " Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut;" Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut," krpāna- "sword, knife;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Karnidan infinitive from karn.

shear modulus
  پیمون ِ کرن   
peymun-e karn

Fr.: module de cisaillement   

The ratio of the applied → stress to the change in shape (→ strain) produced in an → elastic body. The bigger this quantity the more rigid is the material since for the same change in strain a bigger force is needed. Also called → shear modulus.

shear; → modulus.

shear turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ کرنی   
âšubnâki-ye karni

Fr.: turbulence de cisaillement   

A type of → instability occurring within a → fluid as a result of the → shear caused by → differential rotation. The condition for shear instability is expressed by the → Richardson criterion. Shear turbulence is likely the most efficient → mixing process in stellar → radiative zones.

shear; → turbulence.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>